Document Detail

Effect of processing conditions on phytic acid, calcium, iron, and zinc contents of lime-cooked maize.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  14995114     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Tortillas are made by cooking maize in a lime solution during variable times and temperatures, steeping the grain for up to 12 h, washing and grinding it to a fine dough, and cooking portions as flat cakes for up to 6 min. The effects of the main processing steps on the chemical composition, nutritive value, and functional and physicochemical characteristics have been areas of research. The present work evaluates the effect of lime concentration (0, 1.2, 2.4, and 3.6%) and cooking times (45, 60, and 75 min) on phytic acid retention of whole maize, its endosperm, and germ, as well as on the content of calcium, iron, and zinc on the same samples. The effects of steeping time and temperature and steeping medium on the phytic acid of lime-cooked maize were also studied. Finally, phytic acid changes from raw maize to tortilla were also measured. The results indicated that lime concentration and cooking time reduce phytic acid content in whole grain (17.4%), in endosperm (45.8%), and in germ (17.0%). Statistical analyses suggested higher phytic acid loss with 1.2% lime and 75 min of cooking. Cooking with the lime solution is more effective in reducing phytic acid than cooking with water. Steeping maize in lime solution at 50 degrees C during 8 h reduced phytic acid an additional 8%. The total loss of phytic acid from maize to tortilla was 22%. Calcium content increased in whole maize, endosperm, and germ with lime concentration and cooking and steeping times. The increase was higher in the germ than in the endosperm. The level, however, can be controlled if steeping of the cooked grain is conducted in water. Iron and zinc contents were not affected by nixtamalization processing variables but were affected in steeping.
Ricardo Bressani; Juan Carlos Turcios; Ana Silvia Colmenares de Ruiz; Patricia Palocios de Palomo
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of agricultural and food chemistry     Volume:  52     ISSN:  0021-8561     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Agric. Food Chem.     Publication Date:  2004 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-03-03     Completed Date:  2004-05-04     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0374755     Medline TA:  J Agric Food Chem     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1157-62     Citation Subset:  IM    
Research Institute, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Apartado Postal 1188, Guatemala City, Guatemala.
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MeSH Terms
Calcium / analysis*
Calcium Compounds / analysis
Food Handling / methods*
Hot Temperature
Iron / analysis*
Oxides / analysis
Phytic Acid / analysis*
Seeds / chemistry
Time Factors
Zea mays / chemistry*
Zinc / analysis*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Calcium Compounds; 0/Oxides; 0/Solutions; 1305-78-8/lime; 7439-89-6/Iron; 7440-66-6/Zinc; 7440-70-2/Calcium; 83-86-3/Phytic Acid

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