Document Detail

Effect of breast-feeding on pain relief during infant immunization injections.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19335527     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Using a quasi-experimental design, this study was conducted in two maternal & child health centres in Jordan to examine the effects of breast-feeding on pain relief during neonatal immunization injections. Inclusion criteria were first year of age, breast-fed and no concurrent illness. Infants were divided into two groups (of 60 infants for each). One is intervention group: mothers were taken to a private room, seated and reclined on a comfortable chair with their infants awake in their arms, without cloth and with clean diapers. The mothers cradled their infants during breast-feeding to maintain full-body skin-to-skin contact during immunization injections. The other is control group: infants were observed during routine immunization in maternal & child health centres. Pain responses of infants during and after immunization were assessed by using Facial Pain Rating Scale and Neonatal/Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), before, during and after the procedure. Infants' heart rates and duration of crying for both groups were calculated. Findings revealed that the crying time was shorter in intervention (breast-fed) group than in the control group with a statistically significant difference in the duration of crying during and after immunization. We concluded that, breast-feeding and skin-to-skin contact significantly reduced crying in infants receiving immunization.
Aida Abdel Razek; Nagwa Az El-Dein
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of nursing practice     Volume:  15     ISSN:  1440-172X     ISO Abbreviation:  Int J Nurs Pract     Publication Date:  2009 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-04-01     Completed Date:  2009-08-13     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9613615     Medline TA:  Int J Nurs Pract     Country:  Australia    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  99-104     Citation Subset:  N    
Faculty of Nursing Philadelphia University, Philadelphia, Jordan.
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MeSH Terms
Breast Feeding / statistics & numerical data*
Immunization / adverse effects*
Mother-Child Relations
Pain / etiology*,  prevention & control*

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