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Ecological status and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya, India.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and other useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is situated in the interior part of the Himalayan region. The presented study was carried in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of plant and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of plant in the sanctuary. METHODS: Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were collected using random quadrats in a random sampling technique along an altitudinal gradient in the KWLS. Information on medicinal properties of plants encountered in the present study was generated by questionnaire survey and also compared with relevant literature. RESULTS: A total of 152 medicinally important plant species were reported, in which 103 were found herbs, 32 shrubs and 17 were tree species which represented 123 genera of 61 families. A total of 18 plant species fell into the rare, endangered (critically endangered) and vulnerable status categories. CONCLUSION: The present study documented the traditional use of medicinal plants, their ecological status and importance of these plants in the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinal plants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource.
Authors:
Jahangeer A Bhat; Munesh Kumar; Rainer W Bussmann
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Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-2
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Title:  Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine     Volume:  9     ISSN:  1746-4269     ISO Abbreviation:  J Ethnobiol Ethnomed     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
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Journal ID (nlm-ta): J Ethnobiol Ethnomed
Journal ID (iso-abbrev): J Ethnobiol Ethnomed
ISSN: 1746-4269
Publisher: BioMed Central
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Received Day: 18 Month: 7 Year: 2012
Accepted Day: 28 Month: 12 Year: 2012
collection publication date: Year: 2013
Electronic publication date: Day: 2 Month: 1 Year: 2013
Volume: 9First Page: 1 Last Page: 1
PubMed Id: 23281594
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Publisher Id: 1746-4269-9-1
DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-9-1

Ecological status and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya, India
Jahangeer A Bhat1 Email: jahan191@gmail.com
Munesh Kumar1 Email: muneshmzu@yahoo.com
Rainer W Bussmann2 Email: Rainer.Bussmann@mobot.org
1Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, H.N.B, Garhwal University, Srinagar-Garhwal, Uttarakhand, 249161, India
2William L. Brown Center, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO, 63166-0299, USA

Introduction

The forests of India have been the source of traditional medicines for millennia. Of the 17,000 species of higher plants described in India, 7500 are known for their medicinal uses [1]. The Charak Samhita, a document on herbal therapy written about 300 BC, reports on the production of 340 herbal drugs and their indigenous uses [2]. The use of alternative medicine is growing because of its moderate costs and increasing faith in herbal medicine. Allopathic medicine can cure a wide range of diseases, however, its high prices and side-effects are causing many people to return to herbal medicines which tend to have fewer side effects [3]. A great amount of traditional knowledge about the use of medicinal plant species is still carried and orally transmitted by indigenous peoples. Regions with less accessibility and a comparatively slow rate of development, such as and mountainous areas like the Himalayas are excellent examples [4,5]. Because of the fast acceleration of market demand for herbal medicines, and recent controversies related to access, benefit sharing and bio-piracy, the documentation of indigenous knowledge is of urgent priority [6-10]. Indigenous knowledge, supplemented by the latest scientific insights, can offer new holistic models of sustainable development that are economically viable, environmentally benign and socially acceptable [11]. Currently, approximately 25% of allopathic drugs are derived from plant based compounds, and many others are synthetic analogues built on prototype compounds isolated from plant species [12]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), as many as 80% of the world’s people depend on traditional medicine to meet their primary health care needs [13].

The Himalayan range in the northern part of India harbours a great diversity of medicinal plants. Of the approximately 8000 species of angiosperms, 44 species of gymnosperms and 600 species of pteridophytes that have been reported in the Indian Himalaya [14], 1748 species are known for their medicinal properties [15]. The state of Uttarakhand is a part of north-western Himalaya, and still maintains a dense vegetation cover (65%). The maximum species of medicinal plants have been reported from Uttarakhand [16,17], followed by Sikkim and North Bengal [15]. The trans-Himalaya in contrast sustains about 337 species of medicinal plants [4], which are low compared to other areas of the Himalaya due to the distinct geography and ecological marginal conditions [18]. Recent years have seen a sudden rise in the demand of herbal products and plant based drugs across the world resulting in the heavy exploitation of medicinal plants. Habitat degradation, unsustainable harvesting and over-exploitation to meet the demands of the mostly illegal trade in medicinal plants have already led to the extinction of more than 150 plant species in the wild [19]. More than 90% of plant species used in the herbal industries are extracted from the wild, and about 70% of the medicinal plants of Indian Himalaya are subject to destructive harvesting [20,21], and the majority of these plants stems from sub-alpine and alpine regions of the Himalaya [21]. The importance of ethnobiological knowledge on species-ecology can provide leads for new paths in scientific research and conservation, and has received growing attention in resource management worldwide [22,23]. International agencies such as the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Orga-nization (UNESCO) as part of their people and plants initiative, are promoting research on ethnobotanical knowledge and the integration of people’s perceptions and practices in resource management at the local level [24].

The Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is rich in biological diversity and is one of the most important regions of Garhwal Himalaya. The area of KWLS selected for this study is a particularly remote area, and the villagers residing in the area are fully dependent on forest resources, especially ethnomedicines for their daily livelihoods. Some ethnomedicinal studies on plants in this part of Himalayan region have been published, but hardly any ecological studies have also been carried out. The aim of the present study was to assess the ecological status of ethnomedicinal plants in a part of the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya.


Materials and methods
Study area

The present study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area, which is the interior part of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) in the Western Himalaya of Chamoli-Rudraprayag districts of Uttarakhand, India. KWLS was established in 1972 and is situated in the north-eastern part of the Garhwal Himalayas between 30°25-30°41 N, 78°55-79°22 E. The Sanctuary falls under the IUCN management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) in the Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 of Himalayan highlands. KWLS is one of the largest protected areas with 97517.80 ha (25293.70 ha in Chamoli district and 72224.10 ha in Rudraprayag district) in the Western Himalaya [19]. The sanctuary lies in the upper catchment of the Alaknanda and Mandakini Rivers, which are major tributaries of Ganges. It is bordered by high mountain peaks, e.g. Kedarnath (6940 m), Mandani (6193 m) and Chaukhamba (7068 m) and harbors extensive alpine meadows, in particular Trijuginarayan, Kham, Mandani, Pandavshera, Manpai and Bansinarayan in the north, and several dense broad leaved oak mixed forest stands in the south. The present study represents data from a transect from the base of the mountain to the top in the Madhmaheshwer area between the coordinates 30°3542-30°3812N, 79°1000-79°1300E (Figure 1). The area receives 3000 mm of annual precipitation, of about 60% fall during the monsoon season (June-August). The relative humidity varies from 35 to 85% annually. There is moderate to heavy snowfall during December-February, even in low-altitude areas. The mean maximum temperature varies between 4°C (January) and 33.5°C (June).

Ecological analysis of plant species

The vegetation analysis of ethnomedicinal plants was carried out following the stratified random sampling technique involving random quadrats. The size of the square plots was 100 m2 for trees, and nested within the main quadrats two plots of 25 m2 for shrubs and four plots of 1 m2 for herbs. The study area was divided into five altitudinal zones along the altitudinal gradient, to assess the ecological status of medicinal plant species. The frequency and density of all species was determined [25,26].

Ethnomedicinal study of plant species

The plant species reported in the ecological studies of Madhmeshwar area were only taken for the ethnomedicinal study. A well structured questionnaire was prepared covering different questions regarding plants used for ethnomedicinal purposes. For the ethnomedicinal study only two villages were observed i.e., Gundhaar and Ransi in Madhmeshwar area and the respondents were selected randomly from the villages. Gundhaar is situated inside the sanctuary with 42 households while village Ransi is situated at the fringe of sanctuary with a total of 119 households. More than 10 percent of respondents of total population of the villages were selected for questionnaire survey. Both formal and informal discussions were carried out covering different age groups with both genders and mostly elders were involved in the interview process. The plants reported in ecological studies were also further used to collect the informations on ethnomedicinal uses with relevant available literature in Himalayan region and in a part of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary [19,27,28]. The plant species having ethnomedicinal values were cross checked with the Red Data Book and other publications who have categorized the plant species under various threat (ecological status) categories [29-31].

Collection and identification of plant specimens

From each sampling site, all plant species encountered in the quadrats were collected, and identified with the help of local and regional floras [27,32], while as some plants were also identified with the field guide [33]. Specimens collected during the surveys were processed in the laboratory according to [34]. These were pressed, dried in blotting sheets and poisoned with formaldehyde or mercuric chloride solution (0.5%) to protect against insect and fungal damage before mounting on the herbarium sheets. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of Botanical Survey of India (BSD) and in the Herbarium of HNB Garhwal University Srinagar (GUH) under collector series JAB (Jahangeer Akbar Bhat). The nomenclature of the species follows “Flowering Plants of Uttarakhand - A Checklist” [35].


Results and discussion

A total of one hundred and fifty two species of medicinally important plants (Table 1) were found in the quadrats including 49 species (Table 5) reported from the villages Gundhaar and Ransi of Madhmeshwar area. One hundred and three of these were herbs, thirty two shrubs and seventeen trees (Table 1), belonging to hundred twenty three genera of sixty one families (Figure 2). The most commonly used parts of ethomedicinal plants, compiled with relevant literature were leaves (32%), roots (24%), whole plants or plant (13%), followed by fruits (9%) and seeds and flowers (6% each) (Figure 3 and Table 2). According to different reports [19,27-31] eighteen plant species encountered have to be classified as rare, endangered, critically endangered or vulnerable (Table 2): Aconitium hetrophyllum, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Podophyllum hexandrum, Rosa sericea, Roscoea alpina, Salvia hians, Saussurea auriculata, Sorbus aucuparia, Sorbus cuspidata, Synotis alatus, Bistorta amlexicaulis, Coriaria nepalensis, Hypericum choisianum and Morina longifolia were recorded as rare species, while Jurinea dolomiaea and Swertia chirayita are classified as endangered, and Polygonatum verticillatum and Zanthoxylum armatum are vulnerable (Table 1).

Ecological study of plant species
Altitudinal zone-I (1550–1750 m)

In this altitudinal zone ten trees were reported having medicinal values. The highest density (0.55 trees/100 m2) and frequency (35%) was found for Pinus roxburghii followed by Neolitsea pallens (0.45 trees/100 m2 density with 30% frequency). The lowest density (0.05 trees/100 m2) and frequency (5%) was observed for Callicarpa arborea (Table 2). Sixteen medicinal shrub species were found in this altitudinal zone. The highest density and frequency (1.85 plants/25 m2 and 52.50% respectively) was recorded for Debregeasia salicifolia followed by Woodfordia fruticosa (0.58 plants/25 m2, frequency 17.50%). Arachne cordifolia and Sarcococca saligna were found with the lowest density and frequency (0.18 plants/25 m2, 7.50%) (Table 3). A total of twenty nine herb species with medicinal values were found. Among the herb species, the highest density (0.93 plants/m2) was observed for Gonatanthus pumilus followed by Rumex hastatus (0.69 plants/m2). The highest frequency was again reported for Gonatanthus pumilus (16.25%) followed by Aster peduncularis and Cyathula tomentosa (15%). The lowest density and frequency (0.05 plants/m2 and 1.25% respectively) was recorded for Valeriana hardwickii (Table 4).

Altitudinal zone-II (2000–2200 m)

In this altitudinal zone-II, five trees, eight shrubs and twenty nine herbs with medicinal values were observed (Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4 respectively). The highest density (0.90 trees/100 m2) and frequency (50%) was found for Rhododendron arboreum followed by Lyonia ovalifolia (0.50 trees/100 m2, 25%). The lowest density (0.05 trees/100 m2) and frequency (5%) was observed for both Juglans regia and Neolitsea pallens (Table 2). The highest density and frequency for shrubs (0.85 plants/25 m2, 17.50%) was recorded for Rubus niveus, followed by Indigofera heterantha (0.68 plants/25 m2, 15%) values. The lowest density (0.15 plants/25 m2, 2.50%) was reported for Sarcococca saligna (Table 3). A total of twenty nine herbs were found with medicinal values and the highest density (1.30 plants/m2) and frequency (32.50%) was observed for Ainsliaea latifolia, followed by Rumex nepalensis (1.13 plants/m2, 26.25%). The lowest density (0.05 plants/m2) was reported for Asparagus filicinus, Paeonia emodii, Verbascum thapsus, Bergenia ciliata, and Reinwardtia indica (0.08 plants/m2). The lowest frequency (1.25%) was recorded for Paeonia emodii (Table 4).

Altitudinal zone-III (2450–2650 m)

In this altitudinal zone-III, five trees with medicinal values were reported. Among these medicinal tree species, the highest density (1.10 trees/100 m2) and frequency (50%) was observed for Rhododendron arboreum. The lowest density (0.15 trees/100 m2) was recorded for Hippophae salicifolia and Sorbus cuspidata while as lowest frequency (10%) was observed for Hippophae salicifolia (Table 2). Fifteen shrub species with medicinal values were found in this altitudinal zone. The highest density and frequency (1.53 plants/25 m2 and 40%) was recorded for Indigofera heterantha followed by Rubus niveus (1.45 plants/25 m2, 35%), while the lowest density and frequency (0.05 plants/25 m2, 2.50%) was registered for Persicaria polystachya (Table 3). In the herb layer thirty (30) species were found. Among these Rumex nepalensis had the highest density and frequency (0.66 plants/m2, 23.75%), followed by Veronica anagallis-aquatica (0.61 plants/m2, 18.75%). The lowest density (0.06 plants/m2) was recorded for Pimpinella acuminata (Table 4).

Altitudinal zone-IV (2900–3100 m)

In this altitudinal zone-IV, three tree species, nine shrub species and twenty two herb species with medicinal values were encountered (Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4). In the tree layer, the highest density (0.35 trees/100 m2) and frequency (25%) was found for Viburnum cotnifolium followed by Abies pindrow. The lowest density and frequency (0.10 trees/100 m2, 10%) was observed for Taxus baccata (Table 2). For shrub species, the highest density and frequency (2.73 plants/25 m2, 70%) was recorded for Coriaria nepalensis while the lowest density (0.35 plants/25 m2) was recorded for Persicaria polystachya. Leycesteria formosa and Persicaria polystachya had the lowest frequency (7.50%) (Table 3). Among the herb species, the highest density (1.15 plants/m2) and frequency (38.75%) was observed for Rubus nepalensis followed by Ainsliaea apetra (0.95 plants/m2, 31.25%). The lowest density and frequency (0.05 plants/m2, 2.50% respectively) was found for Artemisia roxburghiana, followed by Bergenia ciliata and Impatiens scabrida (Table 4).

Altitudinal zone-V (3350–3550 m)

Only two trees species with medicinal value were reported in the altitudinal zone-V. Sorbus aucuparia had the highest density and frequency (0.25 trees/100 m2, 25%), while Abies pindrow followed (0.10 trees/100 m2, 10%) (Table 2). Of the three shrub species encountered Rosa sericea was most common (1.23 plants/25 m2), followed by Lonicera angustifolia (0.38 plants/25 m2), and Cotoneaster microphyllus (0.23 plants/25 m2). The highest frequency (33.33%) was observed for both Cotoneaster microphyllus and Lonicera angustifolia, while Rosa sericea was much less frequent (26.53%) (Table 3). Among the thirty one herbs Rumex nepalensis (0.71 plants/m2, 27.50%), and Ranunculus hirtellus (0.38 plants/m2, 20%) had the highest density and frequency. The lowest density value (0.05 plants/m2) was found for Maianthemum purpureum, while Bistorta amplexicaulis was observed with lowest frequency (2.50%) (Table 4).

Ethnomedicinal study of plant species

Of the total one hundred and fifty two species of ethnomedicinal plants complied for ethnomedicinal uses in the Himalayan region and Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary areas including 49 plant species of these were too reported from both the villages (Gundhaar and Ransi) of study area of Madhmeshwar, in KWLS. The scientific names, part used and ethnonomedicinal uses of these plants reported from the villages Gundhaar and Ransi is shown in Table 5. The reported 49 ethnomedicinal plants used to cure several ailments such as fever, cough, pain, wounds, cuts, insecticides, diarrhoea, dysentery, kidney problems, eye diseases, stop bleeding, abdomen pain, indigestion, antiseptic, healing foot cracks, mouth wash, blood diseases etc. The contribution of plant parts used by the inhabitants of Gundhaar and Ransi villages, was reported highest for roots (32%), followed by leaves (27%). Flowers, seeds and fruits contributed 8% for each and lowest contribution was reported for barks and resin of 3% and 1% respectively.

Ethnobotany explains the holistic relationships between plants and people [36]. Rapid global biodiversity loss is an issue of critical concern, with approximately 5000 species of animals and 25,00 species of plants currently listed as endangered, threatened, or at risk of overexploitation [37]. The Himalayan range is rich in endemic and medicinal plant diversity [38]. Uncontrolled developmental activities are causing a great loss to the biodiversity in the Indian Himalayan region, where medicinal plants in particular are declining at a very fast rate due to their over exploitation for trade [39], and it is believed that excessive anthropogenic activities are the main cause of decline in the population and availability of medicinal plants in the region [38,40]. There are many protected areas (PAs) across the Himalayan region but not a single PA has been specifically established to ensure the conservation of medicinal plants.

The plant species reported from the Madhmeshwar area of KWLS were one hundred and fifty two species having medicinally important value with one hundred twenty three genera belonging to sixty one families. In comparison [41] explored the Pindari area of Nanda Biosphere Reserve and reported 224 plant species with medicinal values. [42] recorded 701 species of medicinal plants of which 138 species were trees, 135 shrubs and 421 were herbs in various forest types of Uttarakhand. [43] presented a list of 41 medicinal plants with their medicinal uses and mode of application of Pauri Garhwal Himalaya. [44] reported 135 species having medicinal values from the Panwalikantha at an elevation of 3800 m. [45] reported a total of 335 medicinal plant species from the high altitude cold desert areas of Lahul-Spiti in Ladkh of which 45 were rare and endangered. [46] reported 228 species with medicinal and aromatic properties from Renuka Wildlife Sanctuary of Himalaya. Many of these medicinal plants are under of threat due to their heavy extraction [47]. A total of 1748 species having medicinal value have been reported from Indian Himalayan Region [15] contributing 90% of raw material for herbal industries in India and for export [48]. World trade figures suggest that India ranks next to China exporting raw material of medicinal plants [49].

The most commonly used parts of ethnomedicinal plants as collected through different literature survey were leaves (32%), roots (24%), whole plants or plant (13%), followed by fruits (9%) and seeds and flowers (6% each). This corroborates with [50] who also found that leaves were the most frequently used plant parts (48%) followed by stem bark (16%), roots and root bark (10%), while the fruits, whole plant, and aerial parts accounted for less than 10% for each. [19] reported that a single plant may be used for curing more than one ailment and observed that roots and root based preparations are the most used plant parts. [51] reported from Nepal that bark, flower, fruit, leaf, root, rhizome, tuber, seed, shoot, resin, and wood were used in this sequence.

In the study eighteen endangered plant species were found. [52] reported 37 species from Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve as critically endangered, endangered, vulnerable and low risk near threatened using IUCN criteria. [15] reported that, as a result of over extraction 3.5% of the medicinal plants of the Indian Himalayan Regions (IHR) fall in different categories of threats.

In the study, the density and frequency for Aconitium heterophyllum was 0.33 plants/m2 and 18.75% while for Jurinea dolomiaea it was 0.08 plants/m2 and 3.75% respectively. Picrorhiza kurrooa was found with density of 0.23 ind/m2 having frequency of 12.50% while Podophyllum hexandrum with 0.19 plants/m2 density and 11.25% frequency. [53] reported 0.33 ind/m2 density of Aconitium heterophyllum in a part of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary and [54] in Gori valley reported a total 0.465 ind/m2, and [55] found a density of 1.0 ind/m2 at Hari Ki Dun area to 2.57 ind/ m2 in Tungnath area of Garhwal Himalaya. [56] reported 2.721 ind/m2 and 86% values of density and frequency for Jurinea dolomiaea in alpine meadows of Kumaun Himalaya. [57] reported a density of 7 ind/m2 and frequency of 100% for Jurinea dolomiaea in rocky areas in alpine area of Chhota Bhangal in Himachal Pradesh. Working on the population density of Picrorhiza kurrooa, [54] reported a density of 3.89 ind/m2 from upper Gori valley and 4.5 ind/m2 in the valley of Flowers National Park, while [53] reported density values of 3.36 ind/m2 in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary. [47] reported 2 ind/m2 density of Podophyllum hexandrum in Pin Valley National Park, while [58] reported 21.8 to 94.73 ind/m2 density and [54] reported 0.193 ind/m2 in Gori valley, with a density of 0.98 ind/m2 in the Valley of Flowers National Park and 0.72 ind/m2 in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary. In contrast [59] found only density values of 0.012 ind/m2 and a frequency value of 18.70% in its natural habitats in Kashmir Himalaya.

The study indicates that in-depth phytochemical and pharmacological investigations would be of interest for some plants with unique or lesser known medicinal applications. The conservation of plant biodiversity in the Indian Himalayan region has become a major concern and more detailed studies on population structure and regeneration rates are needed to plan conservation measures. The traditional knowledge of plant species as medicine is vanishing rapidly, and traditional health care systems are disappearing, and the oral transmittion of knowledge is clearly decreasing. Therefore, the knowledge of indigenous uses of native plants needs to be studied before it gets extinct [60].


Conclusions

Considering the ecological importance and population status of important ethnomedicinal species, we recommend the preparation of micro-plans for each important medicinal species, including data on best harvesting practice and quantity to be harvested. Most of this data is unknown for most medicinal plants. Propagation of plants using tissue culture techniques and conventional methods to allow for their transplantation into natural habitats and niche areas of the species will be an important step towards their conservation. Additional ecological studies, including population assessments using standard ecological methods are needed to effectively plan the conservation and management for threatened, rare and endangered species. The development of agro-production techniques for certain species of Garhwal Himalaya can help to meet the requirement of raw material for commercial use and reduce the pressure on the existing populations in natural habitats.


Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Authors’ contributions

JAB and MK complied the collected field data, analysed and draft the manuscript, RWB revised the manuscript added the valuable suggestions for manuscript improvement. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to the villagers of the study area to provide valuable knowledge about ethnomedicinal plants. Authors are also thankful to Dr Prashant Pusalkar (BSI) and Dr R. M. Panuli (GUH) for their help in identification of the plants specimen.


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Figures

[Figure ID: F1]
Figure 1 

Map of the study area.



[Figure ID: F2]
Figure 2 

Total numbers of species, genera and families of plants having medicinal values.



[Figure ID: F3]
Figure 3 

Percentage of plant parts used in preparing medicines for various ailments.



Tables
[TableWrap ID: T1] Table 1 

Plant species with their status and the part used in different ailments


Scientific name Accession No. Status Habit Plant part used Medicinal uses
Abies pindrow Royle.
JAB-GUH-20578
 
T
Bark extract2
Cough & Bronchitis2
Aconitium hetrophyllum Wallich
JAB-BSD-114039
R1, Ce3, Vu6
H
Root5
Fever, cough,stomachache5
Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Cambess.) Hook.f.
JAB-GUH-20435
 
T
Seed paste2
Rheumatic Pain2
Ainsliaea apetra DC.
JAB-GUH-20677
 
H
Root extract2
Fever, painful urination2
Ainsliaea latifolia (D.Don) Sch.-Bip.
JAB-GUH-20680
 
H
Root decoction2
Colic2
Anaphalis contorta (D.Don) Hook.f.
JAB-GUH-20437
 
H
(Leaf & heads past, plant smoke)2
(Cuts, wounds & boils, insect repellent)2
Anaphalis margaritaceae (L.) Benth
JAB-GUH-20458
 
H
(Leaf & head paste)2
(Cuts, wounds & boils)2
Anaphalis triplinervis (Sims.) C.B. Clarke
JAB-GUH-20453
 
H
Leaf juice2, Flower5
Laceration of toes2, Dressing wounds5
Anemone obtusiloba D.Don
JAB-GUH-20619
 
H
Root decoction2
Diarrhoea2
Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC
JAB-GUH-20613
 
H
(Leaf past & juice)2 Leaves5
(Wounds5, sores & ear ache in local therapy)2
 
JAB-BSD-114043
 
 
 
 
Arachne cordifolia (Decne.) Hurusawa
JAB-GUH-20527
 
S
Leaf & Stem paste2
Wounds & Antidote to snake bite2
Arisaema jacquemontii Blume
JAB-GUH-20432
 
H
Fruits2, Tuber5
(Antidote of poisonous mushrooms & snake bite)2, (Cough, kidney &skin diseases)5
Artemisia japonica Thunb.
JAB-GUH-20446
 
H
(Leaves & flower tops)2
Incense & insecticide2
Artemisia roxburghiana Bess.
JAB-GUH-20468
 
H
Plant extract2
(Antipyretic, Tonic & also rubbed on skin allergy)2
Asparagus filicinus Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
JAB-GUH-20436
 
H
Root tuberous2
(Diabetes, diarrhoea & dysentery)2
 
JAB-BSD-114062
 
 
 
 
Aster peduncularis Wallich
JAB-GUH-20687
 
H
(Plant extract & Root powder)2
(Renal-calculi & stomachic)2
Barleria cristata L.
JAB-GUH-20417
 
H
(Root decoction, Root & Leaves paste)2
(Bronchitis & pneumonia, wound swelling)2
Begonia picta Smith
JAB-GUH-20411
 
H
Plant decoction2
Colic & dyspepsia2
Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.
JAB-GUH-20650
 
H
(Root5 rhizomatous)2
(Tonic, febrifuge, digestive & cutaneous disorders)2, (Fevers, diarrhoea & pulmonary infections)5
Bidens bipinnata L.
JAB-GUH-20440
 
H
Leaf juice2
(Leprosy initial stages, lactating mothers, cuts)2
Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff
JAB-GUH-20441
 
H
Leaf juice2
(Leprosy initial stages, lactating mothers, cuts)2
Bidens pilosa L.
JAB-GUH-20444
 
H
(Plant extract & herbs of plants)2
(Cough & Bronchitis, leucoderma)2
Bistorta amplexicaulis (D.Don) Greene
JAB-GUH-20600
 
H
(Plant decoction & Leaf paste)2
(Cause abortion, wounds & relieves dysentery)2
Bistorta vaccinifolia (Wall. ex Meisn.) Greene.
JAB-BSD-114056
R2
H
Root decoction2
Tuberculosis2
Blumea lanceolaria (Roxb.) Druce
JAB-GUH-20679
 
H
Leaf paste2
Wounds & cuts2
Buddleja asiatica Lour.
JAB-GUH-20485
 
S
Leaf extract & Roots2
Skin diseases & Abortifacient2
Bupleurum falcatum L.
JAB-GUH-20427
 
H
Root decoction2
Fever & liver troubles2
Calanthe tricarinata Lindl.
JAB-GUH-20573
 
H
(Leaf paste Leaves & Pseudo-bulbs)2
(Sores & eczema, aphrodisiac)2
Callicarpa arborea Roxb.
JAB-GUH-20672
 
T
Bark2
Skin ailments2
Cannabis sativa L.
JAB-GUH-20488
 
H
Flowers2
Intoxicating agent2
Carpinus viminea Lindl.
JAB-GUH-20503
 
T
Leaves5
Bone fracture5
Clematis buchananiana DC.
JAB-GUH-20611
 
S
Leaf paste2
Skin ailments2
Clematis montana Buch.-Ham. ex DC.
JAB-GUH-20618
 
H
Leaf extract2
Diabetes & urinary troubles2
Clinopodium umbrosum (M.Bieb.) C. Koch
JAB-GUH-20558
 
H
(Plant extract & Leaf infusion)2
(Astringent, carminative, Blood purifier & Gastric troubles)2
Corallodiscus lanuginosus (Wall. ex DC.) B.L. Burtt
JAB-BSD-114064
 
H
Leaves2
Kidney stone2
Coriaria nepalensis Wallich
JAB-GUH-20502
R2
S
Fruits2
Emetic2
Cotoneaster microphyllus Wall. ex Lindl.
JAB-GUH-20640
 
S
Leaf, Fruits & Root Paste2
Diarrhoea, Cuts & Wounds2
Cyathula capitata Moq.
JAB-GUH-20422
 
H
(Leaf extract & Urticle)2
Emetic & abortifacient2
Cyathula tomentosa Moq.
JAB-GUH-20421
 
H
Leaf extract2
(Emetic property & given in snake bite)2
Cynoglossum glochidiatum Wall. ex Benth.
JAB-BSD-114059
 
H
Root extract2
Dyspepsia & digestive disorders2
Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk.
JAB-GUH-20481
 
H
Plant infusion2
Cold & cough2
Debregeasia salicifolia (D.Don) Rendle
JAB-GUH-20666
 
S
Bark2
Plaster for Bone Fracture2
Delphinium vestitum Wall. ex Royle
JAB-GUH-20616
 
H
Plant Stem5
Body swelling5
Desmodium elagans DC.
JAB-GUH-20531
 
S
Root infusion & Roots2
Epilepsy & Carminatives2
Deutzia compacta Craib.
JAB-GUH-20541
 
S
Leaves2
Diuretic2
Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees
JAB-GUH-20418
 
H
(Leaf5 paste & juice)2
(Wounds cough & gastro-enteritis)2 (Fever, skin diseases & stomachache)5
Dipsacus inermis Wallich
JAB-GUH-20483
 
H
Root paste2
Leucoderma & contusions2
Elephantopus scaber L.
JAB-GUH-20448
 
H
(Root extract & leaves)2
(Fever, stops vomiting, tonic for blood diseases)2
Elsholtzia fruticosa (D.Don) Rehder.
JAB-GUH-20551
 
S
Seeds2
Sciatica reliever2
Elsholtzia strobilifera Benth.
JAB-GUH-20549
 
H
(Plant5 paste)2
(Bruises & wounds5)2
Eupatorium odenophorum Spreng.
JAB-GUH-20452
 
S
Leaves2,5
Wounds2, Skin diseases5
Euphorbia chamaesyce L.
JAB-GUH-20410
 
H
Plant juice2
(Constipation & dysentery to infants)2
Euphorbia hypericifolia L.
JAB-GUH-20529
 
H
Leaf infusion2
(Dysentery, diarrhoea, menorrhagia)2
Euphorbia pilosa Linn.
JAB-GUH-20528
 
H
(Root decoction & Fruits)2, Seed & Leaves5
Constipation & emetic2, Food poisoning5
Fagopyrum dibotrys (D.Don) Hara
JAB-GUH-20597
 
H
Leaf paste2
Insect bite2
Fragaria nubicola Lindl. ex Lacaita
JAB-GUH-20628
 
H
Leaf juice2
Ear ache2
Galinsoga parviflora Cav.
JAB-GUH-20697
 
H
Plant extract2
Antidote of nettle sitting2
Galium aparine L.
JAB-GUH-20646
 
H
(Leaf extract & plant5 waste)2,
Astringent5, skin diseases2
Galium asperifolium Wallich.
JAB-GUH-20648
 
H
Plant waste2
Skin ailments2
Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet
JAB-BSD-114067
 
H
Root5 juice2
(Otorrhoea & opthalmia)2, (Dysentery & cold)5
Gerbera gossypina (Royle) P. Beauv.
JAB-GUH-20449
 
H
(Leaf juice & paste)2
(Cuts, wounds, plaster on bone fracture)2
 
JAB-BSD-114060
 
 
 
 
Girardiana diversifolia (Link) Friis
JAB-GUH-20670
 
H
Leaf juice2, Plant whole5
Gonorrhoea2, Diuretic5
Gonatanthus pumilus (D.Don) Engl. & Krause
JAB-GUH-20431
 
H
Root tuber paste2
Burns & wounds2
Gonostegia hirta (Blume) Miq
JAB-GUH-20669
 
H
Roots2
Plaster on fractured bones2
Hippophae salicifolia D.Don
JAB-GUH-20520
 
T
Fruits2,5
(Dandruff)2 & (Cardiac trouble)5
Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz.
JAB-GUH-20673
 
S
Leaf paste & Roots2
Body Swelling & Febrifuge2
Hypericum choisianum Wall. ex N. Robson
JAB-GUH-20691
R2
S
Leaf powder2
Fever2
Impatiens scabrida DC.
JAB-GUH-20474
 
H
Plant Stem2
Cause abortion2
Indigofera heterantha Wall. ex Brandis
JAB-GUH-20532
 
S
Leaf juice2
Diarrhoea, Dysentery & Cough2
Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) DC.
JAB-GUH-20456
 
S
Roots2
Suppressed urination2
Juglans regia L.
JAB- GUH-20520
 
T
Leaves2 , (Bark & Roots)5
Fungicide & Insecticide2 , Tooth ache5
Jurinea dolomiaea Boiss.
JAB-GUH-20443
E3
H
Root5
Incense, fever5
Lamium album L.
JAB-GUH-20559
 
H
Plant decoction2, Flower5
Contraceptive2, Bleeding after childbirth5
Leptodermis Lanceolata Wallich
JAB-GUH-20643
 
S
Bark paste2
Migraines2
Leucas lanata Benth.
JAB-GUH-20553
 
H
Plant infusion2
Whooping cough2
Leycesteria formosa Wallich
JAB-GUH-20494
 
S
Leaf paste2
Dandruff & Lice in hair2
Lindenbergia indica (L.) Vatke
JAB-GUH-20656
 
H
Leaves2
(Bronchitis, Cuts & wounds)2
Lonicera angustifolia Wall. ex DC.
JAB-GUH-20495
 
S
Fruits2
Gastric troubles of cattle2
Lyonia ovalifolia (Wallich) Drude
JAB-GUH-20524
 
T
Seed paste2
Wounds & Boils2
Maianthemum purpureum (Wall.) La Frankie
JAB-GUH-20565
 
H
Leaf extract2
Dysmenorrhoea2
Morina longifolia Wall. ex DC.
JAB-GUH-20571
R2
H
(Root5 paste & dried roots)2
(Wounds & incense)2, (Burns & boils)5
Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
JAB-GUH-20702
 
T
Bark2,4 ,Leaves5 & Fruit4,5
(Intoxicate to fishes)2 (Vit. C, Asthama, Bronchitis, Diarrhoea & tooth ache)4 (Skin diseases & wounds)5
Neolitsea pallens (D.Don) Momiyama & Hara
JAB-GUH-20563
 
T
Fruits2
Scabies & Eczema2
Nepeta ciliaris Benth.
JAB-GUH-20552
 
H
(Leaf & seed decoction)2
Fever2
Nomocharis oxypetala (Royle.) E.H.Wilson.
JAB-GUH-20557
 
H
Bulb5
Vigorous5
Origanum vulgare L.
JAB-GUH-20561
 
H
Plant extract2, Leaves5
(Bronchitis, colic & diarrhoea)2, Toothache, swelling5
Paeonia emodii Wall. ex Royle
JAB-GUH-20575
 
H
(Roots & flower infusion)2, Tuber& leaves5
(Whooping cough, diarrhoea, intestinal spasms)2, Uterine diseases5
Parnassia nubicola Wall. ex Royle
JAB-GUH-20539
 
H
Root5 paste2
Antidote of snake bite2, Boils5
Pedicularis hoffmeisteri Klotz.
JAB-GUH-20657
 
H
Plant whole5
Food poisoning5
Persicaria polystachya (Wall. ex Meissn.) H. Gross
JAB-GUH-20598
 
S
Leaf paste2
Laceration of toes2
Phalaris minor Retz.
JAB-GUH-20591
 
H
Root paste2
Wounds2
Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.
JAB-GUH-20654
R1, CE3,Vu6
H
Root5
Fever, stomachache5
Pimpinella acuminata (Edgew.) C.B. Clarke
JAB-GUH-20428
 
H
Plant extract2
Diarrhoea & dysentery2
Pimpinella diversifolia DC.
JAB-GUH-20426
 
H
Plant extract2
(Digestive disorders, cold & cough)2
Pinus roxburghii Sargent
JAB-GUH-20701
 
T
Saw Dust2 & Aerial parts4
(Asthma & Bronchitis)2 , (Resin for cracked toes)4
Plantago depressa Willd.
JAB-GUH-20580
 
H
(Leaf & seed paste)2
(Cuts, wounds, piles)2
Plantago himalaica Pilger.
JAB-GUH-20579
 
H
Leaves5
Dysentery5
Podophyllum hexandrum Royle.
JAB-GUH-20592
R1,E3, E6
H
Root5
Wounds5
Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All.
JAB-GUH-20564
Vu3
H
(Root5 paste & powder)2
(Gastric problems5, wounds)2
Primula denticulata Sm.
JAB-GUH-20606
 
H
(Flower & root paste)2
(Diabetes & urinary ailments, lice killing)2
Prinsepia utilis Royle
JAB-GUH-20413
 
S
(Seed5 oil)2 & (Root5-bark)2
(Rheumatic pain, Diarrhoea)2 & (Pile, Stomach disorders)5
Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
JAB- GUH-20699
 
T
Fruits2,4,5 & Bark4
(Digestive disorder)2 ,5(Astringent, Laxative, Anthelmintic, Febrifuge)4
Ranunculus hirtellus Royle.
JAB-GUH-20620
 
H
Plant paste2
Wounds2
Reinwardtia indica Dumort.
JAB-GUH-20566
 
H
Flowers2
Tongue wash2
Rhamnus virgatus Roxb.
JAB-GUH-20624
 
S
Bark paste & Fruits2
Eczema & Ring Worm, Emetic & Purgative2
Rhododendron arboreum Smith
JAB-GUH-20521
 
T
Flower2,4 , Bark2, & (Young Shoots)5
(Digestive and respiratory disorder)2 (tonic for heart, diarrhoea & dysentery)4 (Headache, Blood dysentery)5
Rhus javanica L.
JAB-GUH-20424
 
S
Fruits & Bark Paste2
Colic & Cholera, Swelling & Wounds2
Rosa sericea Lindl.
JAB-GUH-20626
R2
S
Flower juice2 & Fruits5
Bowel complaints2, (Headaches & Liver complaints)5
Roscoea alpina Royle
JAB-BSD-114063
R2
H
(Plant extract, leaf powder)2, Root5
(Tonic, cuts & wounds of cattle)2, (urinary diseases & tuberculosis)5
Roylea cinerea (D.Don) Baill.
JAB-GUH-20556
 
S
Leaves decoction2
Malarial fever2
Rubia manjith Roxb. ex Fleming
JAB-GUH-20647
 
S
(Roots5 & Flowers)2
(Tonic & Astringent, Bacillary Dysentery)2, (Lower blood pressure, Kidney stone)5
Rubus nepalensis (Hook.f.) Kuntze
JAB-GUH-20625
 
H
Root paste2
Burns & scalds2
Rubus niveus Thunb
JAB-GUH-20638
 
S
Fruit extract & Fruit juice2
Dysmenorrhoea & Antidote of snake bite2
Rumex hastatus D.Don
JAB-GUH-20603
 
H
Leaf extract2
(Cuts & wounds, nettle sitting reliever)2
Rumex nepalensis Spreng.
JAB-GUH-20602
 
H
Leaf5 infusion2
(Dysmenorrhoea, stomach ache)2, Etching5
Salvia hians Royle ex Benth.
JAB-GUH-20555
R2
H
Leaf juice2, Root5
(Arthritic, pain & eczema, body swelling)2, (cold, coughs & anxiety)5
Salvia nubicola Wall. ex Sw.
JAB-GUH-20560
 
H
(Leaf paste, Root5 extract)2
(Wounds, cold & cough)2, Fever5
Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.
JAB-GUH-20649
 
T
Fruit2,4 & Seed4
Hair2, (Expectorant, antiepileptic, Emetic, febrifuge & Dental cares)4
Sarcococca saligna (D.Don) Muell.-Arg.
JAB-GUH-20486
 
S
Leaves2, Roots5
Joint pain2, Bawseer5
Saussurea albescens (DC.) Sch.-Bip.
JAB-GUH-20466
 
H
Flower heads2
Bronchitis reliever2
Saussurea auriculata (Spreng. ex DC.) Sch.-Bip.
JAB-BSD-114072
R2
H
Leaf paste2
Venereal diseases2
Saxifraga diversifolia Wall. ex Ser.
JAB-BSD-14071
 
H
Root extract2
Vermifuge2
Selinum candollii DC.
JAB-GUH-20409
 
H
Root5 powder2
(Asthma, cough, hysteria)2, Toothache5
Senecio graciliflorus DC.
JAB-GUH-20462
 
H
(Leaf paste & Juice of heads)2
(Ringworm diseases & insect bites, pussed ear)2
Silene edgeworthii Bocquet.
JAB-GUH-20499
 
H
(Leaf & young shoots juice)2
Eye infections2
Solanum suratteuse Burm.
JAB-GUH-20660
 
H
(Fruits & flower buds)2
(Fever, cough, asthama, gonorrhoea, eye ailments)2
Solidago virgaurea L.
JAB-BSD-114061
 
H
(Leaves & herb juice, Chewed roots)2
(Kidney troubles, asthma, rheumatism, wounds, throat irritation)2
Sorbaria tomentosa (Lindl.) Rehder
JAB-GUH-20637
 
S
Fruits (smoke)2
Asthama2
Sorbus aucuparia L.
JAB-GUH-20632
R2
T
Fruit extract2
Cough & Cold2
Sorbus cuspidata (Spach) Hedlund
JAB-GUH-20634
R2
T
Bark decoction2
Fever2
Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten
JAB-GUH-20538
E3, Vu6
H
Leaves5
Blood diseases5
Swertia ciliata (G.Don) Burtt.
JAB-BSD-114044
 
H
Plant extract2, Leaves5
Malaria2, Blood purifier5
Synotis alatus (Wall. ex DC.) C. Jeffrey & Chen.
JAB-GUH-20681
R2
H
Plant decoction2
Fever2
Taraxacum officinale Weber.
JAB-GUH-20465
 
H
Root5 extract2
(Migraines, hepatitis & head ache)2, Blood purifier5
Taxus baccata L.
JAB-GUH-20661
 
T
Bark2,5 & Bark Paste2
(Plaster on fractured bones Headache)2 & (Breast Pile)5
Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.
JAB-GUH-20662
 
H
(Root juice, Fruits & Leaves)2
(Cuts, delivery facilitation)2
Urena lobata L.
JAB-GUH-20568
 
H
Root paste2
(Body pain & rheumatism)2
Urtica ardens Link.
JAB-GUH-20668
 
H
(Seed oil & Leaf extract)2
(Sciatica, rheumatism, skin ailments, hair-wash for avoiding baldness)2
Urtica dioica L.
JAB-GUH-20664
 
H
(Seed oil & Leaf extract)2, Root5
(Sciatica, rheumatism, skin ailments, hair-wash for avoiding baldness)2, Boils5
Valeriana hardwickii Wallich
JAB-GUH-20671
 
H
(Root5 decoction & Root paste)2
(Urinary disorder, joint pains)2, Wounds5
Verbascum thapsus L.
JAB-GUH-20652
 
H
(Plant extract & Seeds)2, Leaf & flower5
(Asthma, bronchitis, narcotic)2, (Ulcers, tumors & piles)5
Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd.
JAB-GUH-20455
 
H
Leaf powder2
(Intestinal disorder, fever & skin ailments)2
Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.
JAB-GUH-20407
 
H
(Leaf extract & seeds)2
(Dysentery, cold & cough)2
Veronica anagallis-aquatica Linn.
JAB-GUH-20658
 
H
Plant juice2
(Cuts, burns & sores)2
Viburnum cotinifolium D.Don
JAB-GUH-20496
 
T
Bark decoction2
Hepatic & digestive disorder2
Viburnum erubescens Wall. ex DC.
JAB-GUH-20490
 
S
Leaves2
Insecticide2
Viburnum grandiflorum Wall ex DC.
JAB-GUH-20492
 
S
Bark Decoction2
Hepatic troubles2
Viburnum nervosum D.Don
JAB-GUH-20493
 
S
Bark Decoction2
Menorrhagia2
Viola canescens Wallich
JAB-GUH-20690
 
H
(Plant4 decoction, Root & Leaf5 juice)2
(Malarial fever, bronchitis, asthma, emetic, cuts & wounds)2, (Headache,cold, cough & malaria)5, (Expectorant, antipyretic, diaphoretic)4
Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz
JAB-GUH-20567
 
S
Leaves & bark, Dry flowers2
Febrifuge, Haemorrhoids2
Zanthoxylum armatum DC JAB-GUH-20460 Vu3 S Leaves & Fruits2 (Seed & Bark)5 Mouth wash2 & tooth ache2,5 (Infection in stored grain)5

Abbreviation Habit: T Tree, S = Shrub, H = Herb Status: R = Rare, Vu = Vulnerable, Ce = Critically Endangered, E = Endangered. Superscript: (1) = Red Data Book (IUCN, 1993), (2) = Gaur 1999, (3) = National Medicinal Plant Board (NMPB, 2003), (4) = Joshi et al. 2010, (5) = Singh & Rawat 2011, (6) = Semwal et al. 2007.) J.A.B = Jahangeer Akbar Bhat, GUH = Garhwal University Herbarium, BSD = Botanical Survey Dehradun.


[TableWrap ID: T2] Table 2 

Medicinal tree species in the study area (F- Frequency %, D- Density trees/100 m2)


Species
Family
Zone-I
Zone-II
Zone-III
Zone-IV
Zone-V
 
 
(1550-1750 m)
(2000-2200 m)
(2450-2650 m)
(2900-3100 m)
(3350-3550 m)
    F D F D F D F D F D
Abies pindrow
Pinaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
20
0.25
10
0.10
Aesculus indica
Hippocastanaceae
15
0.15
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Callicarpa arborea
Verbenaceae
5
0.05
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Carpinus viminea
Corylaceae
-
-
5
0.10
-
-
-
-
-
-
Hippophae salicifolia
Elaegnaceae
-
-
-
-
10
0.15
-
-
-
-
Juglans regia
Juglandaceae
5
0.15
5
0.05
-
-
-
-
-
-
Lyonia ovalifolia
Ericaceae
25
0.30
25
0.50
15
0.30
-
-
-
-
Myrica esculenta
Myricaceae
20
0.30
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Neolitsea pallens
Lauraceae
30
0.45
5
0.05
-
-
-
-
-
-
Pinus roxburghii
Pinaceae
35
0.55
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Pyrus pashia
Rosaceae
10
0.10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Rhododendron arboreum
Ericaceae
25
0.25
50
0.90
50
1.10
-
-
-
-
Sapindus mukorossi
Sapindaceae
10
0.15
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Sorbus aucuparia
Rosaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
25
0.25
Sorbus cuspidata
Rosaceae
-
-
-
-
15
0.15
-
-
-
-
Taxus baccata
Taxaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
10
0.10
-
-
Viburnum cotinifolium Caprifoliaceae - - - - 15 0.25 25 0.35 - -

[TableWrap ID: T3] Table 3 

Medicinal shrub species in the study area (F- Frequency %, D- Density plants/25 m2)


Species
Family
Zone-I
Zone-II
Zone-III
Zone-IV
Zone-V
 
 
(1550-1750 m)
(2000-2200 m)
(2450-2650 m)
(2900-3100 m)
(3350-3550 m)
    F D F D F D F D F D
Arachne cordifolia
Euphorbiaceae
10.00
0.18
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Buddleja asiatica.
Buddlejaceae
12.50
0.43
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Clematis buchananiana
Ranunculaceae
-
-
-
-
5.00
0.20
-
-
-
-
Coriaria nepalensis
Coriariaceae
-
-
12.50
0.25
10.00
0.58
70.00
2.73
-
-
Cotoneaster microphyllus
Rosaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
17.50
0.68
33.33
0.23
Debregeasia salicifolia
Urticaceae
52.50
1.85
7.50
0.35
-
-
-
-
-
-
Desmodium elagans
Fabaceae
-
-
7.50
0.20
5.00
0.18
-
-
-
-
Deutzia compacta
Hydrangeaceae
-
-
-
-
7.50
0.30
-
-
-
-
Elsholtzia fruticosa
Lamiaceae
-
-
10.00
0.25
12.50
0.25
-
-
-
-
Eupatorium odenophorum
Asteraceae
12.50
0.48
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Holmskioldia sanguinea
Verbenaceae
10.00
0.38
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Hypericum choisianum
Hyperiaceae
10.00
0.20
5.00
0.18
-
-
-
-
-
-
Indigofera heterantha
Fabaceae
12.50
0.35
15.00
0.68
40.00
1.53
-
-
-
-
Inula cappa
Asteraceae
-
-
-
-
12.50
0.40
-
-
-
-
Leptodermis lanceolata
Rubiaceae
15.00
0.43
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Leycesteria formosa
Caprifoliaceae
-
-
-
-
5.00
0.15
7.50
0.38
-
-
Lonicera angustifolia
Caprifoliaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
20.00
0.48
33.33
0.38
Persicaria polystachya
Polygonaceae
-
-
-
-
2.50
0.05
7.50
0.35
-
-
Prinsepia utilis
Rosaceae
10.00
0.25
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Rhamnus virgatus
Rhamnaceae
15.00
0.33
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Rhus javanica
Anacardiaceae
10.00
0.33
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Rosa sericea
Rosaceae
-
-
-
-
12.50
0.65
40.00
1.63
26.53
1.23
Roylea cinerea
Lamiaceae
15.00
0.33
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Rubia manjith
Rubiaceae
-
-
-
-
10.00
0.28
-
-
-
-
Rubus niveus
Rosaceae
10.00
0.28
17.50
0.85
35.00
1.45
-
-
-
-
Sarcococca saligna
Buxaceae
7.50
0.23
2.50
0.15
-
-
-
-
-
-
Sorbaria tomentosa
Rosaceae
-
-
-
-
12.50
0.28
-
-
-
-
Viburnum erubescens
Caprifoliacae
-
-
-
-
12.50
0.40
10.00
0.75
-
-
Viburnum grandiflorum
Caprifoliacae
-
-
-
-
15.00
0.43
32.50
1.05
-
-
Viburnum nervosum
Caprifoliacae
-
-
-
-
-
-
12.50
0.38
-
-
Woodfordia fruticosa
Lythraceae
17.50
0.58
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Zanthoxylum armatum Rutaceae 10.00 0.33 - - - - - - - -

[TableWrap ID: T4] Table 4 

Medicinal herb species in the study area (F- Frequency %, D- Density plants/m2)


Species
Family
Zone-I
Zone-II
Zone-III
Zone-IV
Zone-V
 
 
(1550-1750 m)
(2000-2200 m)
(2450-2650 m)
(2900-3100 m)
(3350-3550 m)
    F D F D F D F D F D
Aconitium hetrophyllum
Ranunculaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
18.75
0.33
Ainsliaea apetra
Asteraceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
31.25
0.95
-
-
Ainsliaea latifolia
Asteraceae
-
-
32.50
1.30
11.25
0.16
-
-
-
-
Anaphalis contorta
Asteraceae
-
-
-
-
10.00
0.20
23.75
0.69
-
-
Anaphalis margaritaceae
Asteraceae
-
-
-
-
6.25
0.16
10.00
0.16
-
-
Anaphalis triplinervis
Asteraceae
6.25
0.21
8.75
0.20
-
-
-
-
-
-
Anemone obtusiloba
Ranunculaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
15.00
0.26
Anemone rivularis
Ranunculaceae
-
-
3.75
0.10
11.25
0.26
-
-
-
-
Arisaema jacquemontii
Araceae
-
-
-
-
8.75
0.23
11.25
0.29
-
-
Artemisia japonica
Asteraceae
-
-
13.75
0.34
-
-
-
-
-
-
Artemisia roxburghiana
Asteraceae
-
-
-
-
7.50
0.26
2.50
0.05
-
-
Asparagus filicinus
Asparagaceae
-
-
3.75
0.05
10.00
0.33
-
-
-
-
Aster peduncularis
Asteraceae
15.00
0.30
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Barleria cristata
Acanthaceae
10.00
0.25
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Begonia picta
Begoniaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
8.75
0.21
-
-
Bergenia ciliate
Saxifragaceae
-
-
3.75
0.08
10.00
0.18
3.75
0.09
-
-
Bidens bipinnata
Asteraceae
-
-
6.25
0.15
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bidens biternata
Asteraceae
5.00
0.20
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bidens pilosa
Asteraceae
-
-
12.50
0.24
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bistorta amplexicaulis
Polygonaceae
-
-
-
-
10.00
0.36
21.25
0.61
2.50
0.21
Bistorta vaccinifolia
Polygonaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7.50
0.13
Blumea lanceolaria
Asteraceae
7.50
0.20
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bupleurum falcatum
Apiaceae
-
-
8.75
0.18
-
-
-
-
-
-
Calanthe tricarinata
Orchidaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11.25
0.20
Cannabis sativa
Cannabinaceae
-
-
6.25
0.25
-
-
-
-
-
-
Clematis montana
Ranunculaceae
11.25
0.33
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Clinopodium umbrosum
Lamiaceae
3.75
0.09
8.75
0.16
-
-
-
-
-
-
Corallodiscus lanuginosus
Gesneriaceae
-
-
-
-
12.50
0.16
-
-
-
-
Cyathula capitata
Amaranthaceae
2.50
0.06
7.50
0.24
-
-
-
-
-
-
Cyathula tomentosa
Amaranthaceae
15.00
0.59
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Cynoglossum glochidiatum
Boraginaceae
-
-
8.75
0.21
-
-
-
-
-
-
Cynoglossum lanceolatum
Boraginaceae
8.75
0.26
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Delphinium vestitum
Ranunculaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8.75
0.16
Dicliptera bupleuroides
Acanthaceae
-
-
12.50
0.20
-
-
-
-
-
-
Dipsacus inermis
Dipsacaceae
-
-
-
-
5.00
0.09
-
-
-
-
Elephantopus scaber
Asteraceae
7.50
0.13
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Elsholtzia strobilifera
Lamiaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
10.00
0.25
3.75
0.10
Euphorbia chamaesyce
Euphorbiaceae
8.75
0.14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Euphorbia hypericifolia
Euphorbiaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6.25
0.16
Euphorbia pilosa
Euphorbiaceae
3.75
0.09
-
-
8.75
0.25
12.50
0.38
-
-
Fagopyrum dibotrys
Polygonaceae
-
-
7.50
0.23
7.50
0.14
-
-
-
-
Fragaria nubicola
Rosaceae
12.50
0.13
7.50
0.18
10.00
0.20
-
-
-
-
Galinsoga parviflora
Asteraceae
-
-
-
-
8.75
0.18
-
-
-
-
Galium aparine
Rubiaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
8.75
0.20
6.25
0.13
Galium asperifolium
Rubiaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3.75
0.10
Geranium wallichianum
Gerianiaceae
-
-
-
-
8.75
0.26
5.00
0.15
-
-
Gerbera gossypina
Asteraceae
11.25
0.21
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Girardiana diversifolia
Urticaceae
12.50
0.61
6.25
0.25
-
-
-
-
-
-
Gonatanthus pumilus
Araceae
16.25
0.93
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Gonostegia hirta
Urticaceae
2.50
0.08
-
-
-
-
-
 
-
-
Impatiens scabrida
Balsamaniceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
3.75
0.09
-
-
Jurinea dolomiaea
Asteraceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5.00
0.08
Lamium album
Lamiaceae
-
-
6.25
0.11
-
-
-
-
-
-
Leucas lanata
Lamiaceae
-
-
-
-
7.50
0.18
-
-
-
-
Lindenbergia indica
Scrophulariaceae
-
-
-
-
12.50
0.24
-
-
-
-
Maianthemum purpureum
Liliaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3.75
0.05
Morina longifolia
Morinaceae
-
-
3.75
0.13
3.75
0.15
6.25
0.11
-
-
Nepeta ciliaris
Lamiaceae
-
-
11.25
0.16
-
-
-
-
-
-
Nomocharis oxypetala
Liliaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11.25
0.13
Origanum vulgare
Lamiaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3.75
0.09
Paeonia emodii
Paenoniaceae
5.00
0.18
1.25
0.05
-
-
-
-
-
-
Parnassia nubicola
Saxifragaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
15.00
0.21
-
-
Pedicularis hoffmeisteri
Scrophulariaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
12.50
0.21
Phalaris minor
Poaceae
6.25
0.33
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Picrorrhiza kurrooa
Scrophulariaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
12.50
0.23
Pimpinella acuminata
Apiaceae
-
-
12.50
0.15
5.00
0.06
-
-
-
-
Pimpinella diversifolia
Apiaceae
-
-
7.50
0.13
-
-
-
-
8.75
0.19
Plantago depressa
Plantaginaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
10.00
0.16
Plantago himalaica
Plantaginaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
10.00
0.20
Podophyllum hexandrum
Podophyllaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11.25
0.19
Polygonatum verticillatum
Liliaceae
-
-
-
-
8.75
0.11
-
-
-
-
Primula denticulate
Primulaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
18.75
0.31
Ranunculus hirtellus
Ranunculaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20.00
0.38
Reinwardtia indica
Linaceae
-
-
5.00
0.08
7.50
0.10
-
-
-
-
Roscoea alpine
Zingiberaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
13.75
0.19
-
-
Rubus nepalensis
Rosaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
38.75
1.15
5.00
0.11
Rumex hastatus
Polygonaceae
12.50
0.69
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Rumex nepalensis
Polygonaceae
-
-
26.25
1.13
23.75
0.66
-
-
27.50
0.71
Salvia hians
Lamiaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
12.50
0.21
Salvia nubicola
Lamiaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3.75
0.06
Saussurea albescens
Asteraceae
-
-
6.25
0.09
16.25
0.71
-
-
-
-
Saussurea auriculata
Asteraceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
13.75
0.19
Saxifraga diversifolia
Saxifragaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
10.00
0.15
-
-
Selinum candollii
Apiaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8.75
0.20
Senecio graciliflorus
Asteraceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8.75
0.15
Silene edgeworthii
Caryophyllaceae
-
-
-
-
12.50
0.23
7.50
0.14
-
-
Solanum suratteuse
Solanaceae
8.75
0.16
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Solidago virgaurea
Asteraceae
-
-
-
-
8.75
0.13
-
-
-
-
Swertia chirayita
Gentianaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
12.50
0.21
-
-
Swertia ciliate
Gentianaceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
18.75
0.30
Synotis alatus
Asteraceae
-
-
-
-
7.50
0.13
-
-
-
-
Taraxacum officinale
Asteraceae
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7.50
0.13
Triumfetta rhomboidea
Tiliaceae
8.75
0.21
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Urena lobata
Malvaceae
6.25
0.15
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Urtica ardens
Urticaceae
2.50
0.20
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Urtica dioica
Urticaceae
7.50
0.49
6.25
0.25
-
-
-
-
-
-
Valeriana hardwickii
Valerianaceae
1.25
0.05
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Verbascum thapsus
Scrophulariaceae
2.50
0.10
3.75
0.05
5.00
0.08
11.25
0.30
-
-
Vernonia anthelmintica
Asteraceae
-
-
-
-
7.50
0.16
-
-
-
-
Vernonia cinerea
Asteraceae
-
-
7.50
0.15
-
-
-
-
-
-
Veronica anagallis-aquatica
Scrophulariaceae
2.50
0.10
-
-
18.75
0.61
-
-
-
-
Viola canescens Violaceae - - - - - - 10.00 0.19 - -

[TableWrap ID: T5] Table 5 

Medicinal uses of plant species reported from the present study area


Scientific name
Present study
 
  Plant part used Medicinal uses
Aconitium hetrophyllum Wallich
Root
Fever and cough
Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Cambess.) Hook.f.
Seed
Rheumatic pain
Anaphalis margaritaceae (L.) Benth
Leaves
Wounds and cuts
Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC
Leaves
Wounds
Artemisia japonica Thunb.
Leaves
Insecticide
Asparagus filicinus Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
Root
Diarrhoea and dysentery
Barleria cristata L.
Root
Wounds
Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.
Root
Fever, kidney calculi, diarrhoea
Blumea lanceolaria (Roxb.) Druce
Leaves
Cuts
Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees
Leaves
Skin diseases, cough, wounds
Elsholtzia strobilifera Benth.
Whole plant
Wounds
Eupatorium odenophorum Spreng.
Leaves
Skin diseases
Galium aparine L.
Roots
Eye diseases and stop bleeding
Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet
Root
Dysentery and cold
Girardiana diversifolia (Link) Friis
Whole plant
Abdomen pain and indigestion
Hippophae salicifolia D.Don
Fruits
Dandruff
Indigofera heterantha Wall. ex Brandis
Leaves
Dysentery and cough
Juglans regia L.
Leaves
Insecticides
Jurinea dolomiaea Boiss.
Root
Incense
Leycesteria formosa Wallich
Leaves
Lice killing
Morina longifolia Wall. ex DC.
Root
Antiseptic, Burns, wounds
Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
Leaves and fruits
Skin diseases and wounds
Origanum vulgare L.
Leaves
Tooth ache
Pedicularis hoffmeisteri Klotz.
Whole plant
Indigestion
Phalaris minor Retz.
Root
Wounds
Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.
Root
Stomach ache
Pinus roxburghii Sargent
Resin
Healing foot cracks
Podophyllum hexandrum Royle.
Root
Antiseptic, wounds
Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All.
Root
Gastric problems
Primula denticulata Sm.
Root and flower
Lice killing
Prinsepia utilis Royle
Seed and roots
Stomach problems
Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
Fruits
Digestive disorders
Ranunculus hirtellus Royle.
Whole plant
Wounds and cuts
Reinwardtia indica Dumort.
Flower juice
Mouth wash
Rhododendron arboreum Smith
Flower juice
Health tonic
Roscoea alpina Royle
Root
Urinary infections
Rubia manjith Roxb. ex Fleming
Flowers
Health tonic
Rubus nepalensis (Hook.f.) Kuntze
Root
Burns
Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.
Fruit and seeds
Hair and antiseptic
Sarcococca saligna (D.Don) Muell.-Arg.
Leaves
Bone and muscle pains
Silene edgeworthii Bocquet.
Tender plant parts
Eye infections
Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten
Leaves
Fever and blood diseases
Synotis alatus (Wall. ex DC.) C. Jeffrey & Chen.
Whole plant
Fever
Taxus baccata L.
Bark
Breast infection
Urena lobata L.
Root
Muscle pains
Urtica ardens Link.
Leaf and seeds
Skin and hair diseases
Urtica dioica L.
leaves
Hair wash
Veronica anagallis-aquatica Linn.
Whole plant
Wounds and burns
Zanthoxylum armatum DC Bark Tooth ache


Article Categories:
  • Research

Keywords: Ethnomedicinal plants use, Ecological status, Resources, Altitudinal zone.

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