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Echoes from childhood-imitation in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22278950     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome patients are reported to show automatic imitation (echopraxia), but this has not yet been proven experimentally. METHODS: Video clips showing either tics of other Tourette patients or spontaneous movements of healthy subjects were presented to Tourette patients and healthy subjects. Participants' responses were assessed using blinded review of video recordings by 2 independent raters and related to stimuli presented. RESULTS: Both raters detected more echoes in patients. In a permutation analysis, no healthy subject had echoes above chance level. In contrast, 6 and 5 patients were classified as echoers according to rater 1 and rater 2, respectively, in 1 analysis, and 9 patients were so classified in a second analysis (according to rater 2 only). Concordance between raters was high. Patients echoed both following stimuli showing tics and following stimuli showing spontaneous movements. Most echoes were part of patients' individual tic repertoire. CONCLUSIONS: Echopraxia is a hallmark of Tourette syndrome. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.
Jennifer Finis; Agnes Moczydlowski; Bettina Pollok; Katja Biermann-Ruben; Götz Thomalla; Martin Heil; Holger Krause; Melanie Jonas; Alfons Schnitzler; Alexander Münchau
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-1-25
Journal Detail:
Title:  Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1531-8257     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-1-26     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8610688     Medline TA:  Mov Disord     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.
Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany; Department of Neurology, Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
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