Document Detail

Echocardiography in Saanen-goats: Normal findings, reference intervals in awake goats, and the effect of general anesthesia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22139947     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structures, dimensions, and mechanical function in goats is poorly documented. The goal of this study was to describe normal findings, establish normal values for two-dimensional (2DE) and M-mode (MME) echocardiography, and investigate the influence of general anaesthesia. Standardized 2DE and MME recordings were obtained on 22 healthy female Saanen goats (3.7 ± 1.1 years [mean ± SD], 60.2 ± 10.6 kg) awake (standing) and during isoflurane anesthesia (sternal recumbency). Cardiac dimensions and function were assessed and compared between treatments (awake vs. anaesthetized). Color Doppler imaging and saline contrast studies served to assess abnormal blood flow patterns. Post mortem examination was performed in a subset of 12 goats. Transthoracic echocardiography was feasible in all goats. Indices of LV systolic function proved to be significantly increased during general anesthesia. The membranous and occasionally echolucent appearance of the oval fossa suggested abnormal interatrial communication in 9 goats. Color Doppler imaging and saline contrast studies proved to be inaccurate to detect interatrial shunting of blood. Post mortem examination confirmed small persistent foramen ovale in only 3 out of 7 goats, in which it had been suspected on echocardiography.
K Steininger; A-S J Berli; R Jud; C C Schwarzwald
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Volume:  153     ISSN:  0036-7281     ISO Abbreviation:  Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd.     Publication Date:  2011 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-12-05     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0424247     Medline TA:  Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  553-64     Citation Subset:  IM    
Farm Animal Department, University of Zurich.
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