Document Detail

Early regeneration determines long-term graft site morphology and function after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with semitendinosus-gracilis autograft: a case series.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23772342     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: The semitendinosus-gracilis tendon autograft is often used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament. Tendon regeneration appears to occur for most individuals in the short term, but little is known about the long-term effects of graft harvest. The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of semitendinosis-gracilis tendon graft harvest on muscle and tendon morphology at least five years following reconstruction in a case series.
METHODS: Magnetic resonance images were taken of the knees of three subjects at least five years following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. These subjects represented the different regeneration patterns at the time of return-to-sport. Muscle and tendon morphology were analyzed by calculating the volume, peak cross-sectional area, and length of the knee flexors. Muscle and tendon morphological changes were analyzed individually, and then in combination as defined as a knee flexor group.
RESULTS: Muscle and tendon regeneration continued in those tendons that had begun regeneration at the time of return-to-sports in two subjects. There was significant additional muscle degeneration in those muscles whose tendons had not regenerated at the time of return-to-sports, in the remaining subject. Compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining knee flexors restored the knee flexor group to near preoperative peak cross-sectional area and volume across the each of the three case subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: Knee flexor morphology at the time of return-to-sports foreshadowed the long-term outcome in the three studied subjects. Preservation of the tendon sheath in situ may play a role in tendon regeneration. When tendon regeneration did not occur, fatty infiltration of the muscle may be a worst-case outcome. Semitendinosus-gracilis muscle synergists demonstrated hypertrophy, perhaps in an effort to compensate for knee flexor group morphology deficits that existed after Semitendinosus gracilis tendon graft harvest.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Semitendinosus and gracilis tendon harvest technique may play a role in regeneration. Additionally, knee flexor morphology at the time of return-to-sports may foreshadow the long-term outcome.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: prospective (longitudinal) cohort - level II.
Toran D Macleod; Lynn Snyder-Mackler; Michael J Axe; Thomas S Buchanan
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of sports physical therapy     Volume:  8     ISSN:  2159-2896     ISO Abbreviation:  Int J Sports Phys Ther     Publication Date:  2013 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-06-17     Completed Date:  2013-06-18     Revised Date:  2013-06-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101553140     Medline TA:  Int J Sports Phys Ther     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  256-68     Citation Subset:  -    
University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
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