Document Detail


Early operant learning is unaffected by socio-economic status and other demographic factors: A meta-analysis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22721745     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The relation between SES (socioeconomic status) and academic achievement in school-aged children is well established; children from low SES families have more difficulty in school. However, few studies have been able to establish a link between SES and learning in infancy, and thus the developmental onset of SES effects remains unknown. The limited studies that have been conducted to explore the link between SES and learning in infancy have generated mixed results; some demonstrate a link between SES and learning in infants as young as 6-9 months (Smith, Fagan, & Ulvund, 2002) while others do not. Further, studies examining the genetic as well as environmental contributors to learning in infancy and early childhood suggest that the effect of SES is likely cumulative and that as children develop, the effect of a low SES environment will become more pronounced (Tucker-Drob, Rhemtulla, Harden, Turkheimer, & Fask, 2011). Using aggregated data from 790 infants collected across 18 studies, we examined the contribution of SES and other demographic factors to learning of an operant kicking task in 2-4-month-old infants in a meta-analysis. Results indicated that, at least with respect to operant conditioning, an infant is an infant; that is SES did not affect learning rate or ability to learn in infants under 4-months of age. SES effects may therefore be better characterized as cumulative, with tangible effects emerging sometime later in life.
Authors:
Peter Gerhardstein; Kelly Dickerson; Stacie Miller; Daniel Hipp
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-6-19
Journal Detail:
Title:  Infant behavior & development     Volume:  35     ISSN:  1934-8800     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-6-22     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7806016     Medline TA:  Infant Behav Dev     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  472-478     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Binghamton University-SUNY, United States.
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