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Drosophila adult olfactory shock learning.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25145496     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Drosophila have been used in classical conditioning experiments for over 40 years, thus greatly facilitating our understanding of memory, including the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in cognitive diseases(1-7). Learning and memory can be assayed in larvae to study the effect of neurodevelopmental genes(8-10) and in flies to measure the contribution of adult plasticity genes(1-7). Furthermore, the short lifespan of Drosophila facilitates the analysis of genes mediating age-related memory impairment(5,11-13). The availability of many inducible promoters that subdivide the Drosophila nervous system makes it possible to determine when and where a gene of interest is required for normal memory as well as relay of different aspects of the reinforcement signal(3,4,14,16). Studying memory in adult Drosophila allows for a detailed analysis of the behavior and circuitry involved and a measurement of long-term memory(15) (-17). The length of the adult stage accommodates longer-term genetic, behavioral, dietary and pharmacological manipulations of memory, in addition to determining the effect of aging and neurodegenerative disease on memory(3-6,11-13,15-21). Classical conditioning is induced by the simultaneous presentation of a neutral odor cue (conditioned stimulus, CS(+)) and a reinforcement stimulus, e.g., an electric shock or sucrose, (unconditioned stimulus, US), that become associated with one another by the animal(1,16). A second conditioned stimulus (CS(-)) is subsequently presented without the US. During the testing phase, Drosophila are simultaneously presented with CS+ and CS- odors. After the Drosophila are provided time to choose between the odors, the distribution of the animals is recorded. This procedure allows associative aversive or appetitive conditioning to be reliably measured without a bias introduced by the innate preference for either of the conditioned stimuli. Various control experiments are also performed to test whether all genotypes respond normally to odor and reinforcement alone.
Authors:
Bilal R Malik; James J L Hodge
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2014-08-07
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1940-087X     ISO Abbreviation:  J Vis Exp     Publication Date:  2014  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-08-22     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101313252     Medline TA:  J Vis Exp     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  IM    
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