Document Detail

Double product and end-organ damage in African and Caucasian men: The SABPA study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22465346     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
BACKGROUND: Increasing urbanisation in sub-Saharan African countries is causing a rapid increase in cardiovascular disease. Evidence suggests that Africans have higher blood pressures and a higher prevalence of hypertension-related cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, compared to Caucasians. We investigated double product (systolic blood pressure×heart rate), a substantial measure of cardiac workload, as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in African and Caucasian men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study consisted of 101 urbanised African and 101 Caucasian male school teachers. We measured 24h ambulatory blood pressure and the carotid cross-sectional wall area, and determined left ventricular hypertrophy electrocardiographically by means of the Cornell product. Urinary albumin and creatinine were analysed to obtain the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. RESULTS: Africans had higher 24h, daytime and nighttime systolic- and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and resultant double product compared to the Caucasians. In addition, markers of end-organ damage, albumin-to-creatinine ratio and left ventricular hypertrophy were higher in the Africans while cross-sectional wall area did not differ. In Africans after single partial and multiple regression analysis, 24h systolic blood pressure, but not double product or heart rate, correlated positively with markers of end-organ damage (cross-sectional wall area: β=0.398, P=0.005; left ventricular hypertrophy: β=0.455, P<0.001; albumin-to-creatinine ratio: β=0.280, P=0.012). No associations were evident in Caucasian men. CONCLUSIONS: Double product may not be a good marker of increased cardiovascular risk when compared to systolic blood pressure in African and Caucasian men.
A J Schultz; A E Schutte; R Schutte
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-3-30
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of cardiology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1874-1754     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-4-2     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8200291     Medline TA:  Int J Cardiol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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