Document Detail

Double burden of iron deficiency in infancy and low socioeconomic status: a longitudinal analysis of cognitive test scores to age 19 years.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17088512     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To assess change in cognitive functioning after iron deficiency in infancy, depending on socioeconomic status (SES; middle vs low).
DESIGN: Longitudinal study.
SETTING: Urban community in Costa Rica (infancy phase [July 26, 1983, through February 28, 1985] through 19-year follow-up [March 19, 2000, through November 4, 2002]).
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 185 individuals enrolled at 12 to 23 months of age (no preterm or low-birth-weight infants or infants with acute or chronic health problems). The participants were assessed in infancy and at 5, 11 to 14, 15 to 18, and 19 years of age. A total of 97% were evaluated at 5 or 11 to 14 years and 78% at 15 to 18 or 19 years. Individuals who had chronic iron deficiency in infancy (iron deficiency with hemoglobin concentrations < or =10.0 g/dL or, with higher hemoglobin concentrations, not fully corrected within 3 months of iron therapy) were compared with those who had good iron status as infants (hemoglobin concentrations > or =12.0 g/dL and normal iron measures before and/or after therapy).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive change over time (composite of standardized scores at each age).
RESULTS: For middle-SES participants, scores averaged 101.2 in the group with chronic iron deficiency vs 109.3 in the group with good iron status in infancy and remained 8 to 9 points lower through 19 years (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.1 to -6.2). For low-SES participants, the gap widened from 10 points (93.1 vs 102.8; 95% CI for difference, -12.8 to -6.6) to 25 points (70.4 vs 95.3; 95% CI for difference, 20.6 to 29.4).
CONCLUSIONS: The group with chronic iron deficiency in infancy did not catch up to the group with good iron status in cognitive scores over time. There was a widening gap for those in low-SES families. The results suggest the value of preventing iron deficiency in infancy.
Betsy Lozoff; Elias Jimenez; Julia B Smith
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine     Volume:  160     ISSN:  1072-4710     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med     Publication Date:  2006 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-11-07     Completed Date:  2006-12-05     Revised Date:  2014-09-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9422751     Medline TA:  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1108-13     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
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MeSH Terms
Adolescent Development / physiology*
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / blood,  complications
Child Development / physiology*
Child, Preschool
Cognition / physiology*
Cognition Disorders / etiology*
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Ferritins / blood
Iron / deficiency*
Longitudinal Studies
Social Class*
Grant Support
R01 HD031606/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; R01 HD031606-05/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; R37 HD 31606/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; R37 HD031606/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; R37 HD031606-06/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; R37 HD031606-07/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; R37 HD031606-07S1/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; R37 HD031606-08/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; R37 HD031606-08S1/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; R37 HD031606-09/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; R37 HD031606-10/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; R37 HD031606-11/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; R37 HD031606-12/HD/NICHD NIH HHS
Reg. No./Substance:
9007-73-2/Ferritins; E1UOL152H7/Iron
Comment In:
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007 May;161(5):523; author reply 523-4   [PMID:  17485637 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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