Document Detail

Dose response to vitamin D supplementation in African Americans: results of a 4-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  24368437     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Association studies have suggested that lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in African Americans may partially underlie higher rates of cardiovascular disease and cancer in this population. Nonetheless, the relation between vitamin D supplementation and 25(OH)D concentrations in African Americans remains undefined.
OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to determine the dose-response relation between vitamin D and plasma 25(OH)D.
DESIGN: A total of 328 African Americans in Boston, MA, were enrolled over 3 winters from 2007 to 2010 and randomly assigned to receive a placebo or 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU vitamin D₃/d for 3 mo. Subjects completed sociodemographic and dietary questionnaires, and plasma samples were drawn at baseline and 3 and 6 mo.
RESULTS: Median plasma 25(OH)D concentrations at baseline were 15.1, 16.2, 13.9, and 15.7 ng/mL for subjects randomly assigned to receive the placebo or 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU/d, respectively (P = 0.63). The median plasma 25(OH)D concentration at 3 mo differed significantly between supplementation arms at 13.7, 29.7, 34.8, and 45.9 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). An estimated 1640 IU vitamin D₃/d was needed to raise the plasma 25(OH)D concentration to ≥ 20 ng/mL in ≥ 97.5% of participants, whereas a dose of 4000 IU/d was needed to achieve concentrations ≥ 33 ng/mL in ≥ 80% of subjects. No significant hypercalcemia was seen in a subset of participants.
CONCLUSIONS: Within African Americans, an estimated 1640 IU vitamin D₃/d was required to achieve concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D recommended by the Institute of Medicine, whereas 4000 IU/d was needed to reach concentrations predicted to reduce cancer and cardiovascular disease risk in prospective observational studies. These results may be helpful for informing future trials of disease prevention.
Kimmie Ng; Jamil B Scott; Bettina F Drake; Andrew T Chan; Bruce W Hollis; Paulette D Chandler; Gary G Bennett; Edward L Giovannucci; Elizabeth Gonzalez-Suarez; Jeffrey A Meyerhardt; Karen M Emmons; Charles S Fuchs
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial     Date:  2013-12-24
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of clinical nutrition     Volume:  99     ISSN:  1938-3207     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Clin. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2014 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-02-21     Completed Date:  2014-05-02     Revised Date:  2014-11-05    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376027     Medline TA:  Am J Clin Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  587-98     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
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MeSH Terms
African Americans
Aged, 80 and over
Boston / epidemiology
Calcifediol / blood*
Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology,  ethnology,  etiology,  prevention & control*
Cholecalciferol / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  therapeutic use*
Cohort Studies
Dietary Supplements* / adverse effects
Double-Blind Method
Intention to Treat Analysis
Lost to Follow-Up
Middle Aged
Neoplasms / epidemiology,  ethnology,  etiology,  prevention & control*
Patient Dropouts
Risk Factors
Vitamin D Deficiency / blood,  diet therapy*,  ethnology,  physiopathology
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
1C6V77QF41/Cholecalciferol; P6YZ13C99Q/Calcifediol
Comment In:
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Sep;100(3):982-4   [PMID:  25142889 ]
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Sep;100(3):984-6   [PMID:  25142890 ]
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Mar;99(3):427-8   [PMID:  24452230 ]

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