Document Detail


Dose-related effects of salvinorin A in humans: dissociative, hallucinogenic, and memory effects.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23135605     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
RATIONALE: Salvinorin A is a kappa opioid agonist and the principal psychoactive constituent of the plant Salvia divinorum, which has increased in popularity as a recreational drug over the past decade. Few human studies have examined salvinorin A.
OBJECTIVE: This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the dose-related effects of inhaled salvinorin A in individuals with histories of hallucinogen use.
METHODS: Eight healthy hallucinogen-using adults inhaled up to 16 doses of salvinorin A (0.375-21 μg/kg) in ascending order. Physiological, behavioral, and subjective effects were assessed every 2 min for 60 min after administration. Qualitative subjective effects were assessed retrospectively via questionnaires at the end of sessions. Persisting effects were assessed 1 month later.
RESULTS: Orderly dose-related effects peaked at 2 min and then rapidly dissipated, replicating previous findings. Subjective effects were intense, with maximal drug strength ratings or unresponsiveness frequently observed at high doses. Questionnaires assessing qualitative effects (Hallucinogen Rating Scale, Pharmacological Class Questionnaire) suggested some overlap with serotonergically mediated classic hallucinogens. Salvinorin A also produced dose-related dissociative effects and impairments in recall/recognition memory. At 1-month follow-up, there was no evidence of persisting adverse effects. Participants reported that salvinorin A effects were qualitatively different from other drugs.
CONCLUSIONS: Salvinorin A produces a unique profile of subjective and cognitive effects, including strong dissociative effects and memory impairment, which only partially overlap with classic hallucinogen effects. Along with nonhuman studies of salvinorin A, these results are important for understanding the neurobiology of the kappa opioid system and may ultimately have important therapeutic applications.
Authors:
Katherine A MacLean; Matthew W Johnson; Chad J Reissig; Thomas E Prisinzano; Roland R Griffiths
Related Documents :
10850355 - Antitumor effect of gold as revealed by growth suppression of cultured cancer cells.
3460075 - Measurement of low levels of x-ray mutagenesis in relation to human disease.
7568765 - The role of dose rate in the induction of micronuclei in deep-lung fibroblasts in vivo ...
2703525 - Lack of suppression by gangliosides of humoral or cellular immunity in vivo.
4073455 - Steroids and postoperative analgesia.
14563545 - Pharmacokinetics of high-dose buprenorphine following single administration of sublingu...
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Date:  2012-11-08
Journal Detail:
Title:  Psychopharmacology     Volume:  226     ISSN:  1432-2072     ISO Abbreviation:  Psychopharmacology (Berl.)     Publication Date:  2013 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-02-25     Completed Date:  2013-09-10     Revised Date:  2014-03-07    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7608025     Medline TA:  Psychopharmacology (Berl)     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  381-92     Citation Subset:  IM    
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Administration, Inhalation
Adult
Dissociative Disorders / chemically induced*
Diterpenes, Clerodane / administration & dosage,  pharmacology*
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Double-Blind Method
Female
Hallucinogens / administration & dosage,  pharmacology*
Humans
Male
Memory / drug effects*
Receptors, Opioid, kappa / agonists
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
R01 DA003889/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; R01 DA018151/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; R01DA003889/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; R01DA018151/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; T32 DA007209/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; T32DA007209/DA/NIDA NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Diterpenes, Clerodane; 0/Hallucinogens; 0/Receptors, Opioid, kappa; 83729-01-5/salvinorin A
Comments/Corrections

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


Previous Document:  Significant reduction of ATP production in PHA-activated CD4+ cells in 1-day-old blood from transpla...
Next Document:  The early cardiovascular changes in pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.