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Does a conservative tibial cut in conventional total knee arthroplasty violate the deep medial collateral ligament?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23851968     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
PURPOSE: Based on the anatomy of the deep medial collateral ligament (MCL), it was hypothesized that at least part of its cross-sectional insertion area is jeopardized while performing a standard tibial cut in conventional total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study was to determine whether it is anatomically possible to preserve the tibial deep MCL insertion during conventional TKA.
METHODS: Thirty-three unpaired cadaveric knee specimens were used for this study. Knees with severe varus/valgus deformity or damage to the medial structures of the knee were excluded. In the first part of the study, the dimensions of the tibial insertion of the deep MCL and its relationship to the joint line were recorded. Next, the cross-sectional area of the deep MCL insertion was determined using calibrated digital photographic analysis. In the second part, the effect of a standard 9-mm 3° sloped tibial cut on the structural integrity of the deep MCL cross-sectional insertion area was determined using conventional instrumentation.
RESULTS: The proximal border of the deep MCL insertion site on the tibia was located on average 4.7 ± 1.2 mm distally to the joint line. After performing a standard 9-mm 3° sloped tibial cut, on average 54 % of the deep MCL insertion area was resected. In 29 % of the cases, the deep MCL insertion area was completely excised.
CONCLUSION: The deep MCL cannot routinely be preserved in conventional TKA. The deep MCL insertion is at risk and may be jeopardized in case of a tibial cut 9 mm below the native joint line. As the deep MCL is a distinct medial stabilizer and plays an important role in rotational stability, this may have implications in future designs of both unicondylar and total knee arthroplasty, but further research is necessary.
Authors:
Michael Maes; Thomas Luyckx; Johan Bellemans
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-7-14
Journal Detail:
Title:  Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1433-7347     ISO Abbreviation:  Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc     Publication Date:  2013 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-7-15     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9314730     Medline TA:  Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology, University Hospitals Leuven, Weligerveld 1, B-3212 Pellenberg, Leuven, Belgium, michael.maes@gmail.com.
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