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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the developing central nervous system (CNS) - Implications for dietary recommendations.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20478353     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The accretion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in membranes of the central nervous system is required for the optimum development of retina and brain functions. DHA status is determined by the dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), both the metabolic precursor α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) and DHA. Clinical studies have shown that feeding term or premature infants with formula low in total n-3 PUFA may alter the maturation of visual acuity. Moreover, feeding infants over the first 6 mon of life with formula containing adequate α-LNA, but no DHA, did not sustain the same cerebral accretion of DHA as that of breast-fed infants. Whether lower DHA accretion in brain of formula-fed term infants impairs neurophysiological performances is not clearly established. Contradictory data have been published, possibly owing to confounding factors such as maternal intakes and/or genetic variations in PUFA metabolism. Nevertheless, a large corpus of data is in favor of the recommendation of regular dietary intakes of DHA (during at least the first 6 mon of life) and suggest that DHA should be added in formulas at the level generally found in human milk (0.2-0.3 wt% of total fatty acids). The maternal intake of n-3 PUFA during pregnancy and lactation is also crucial, since the n-3 PUFA are provided during perinatal development through placental transfer and maternal milk, which determines the DHA status of the newborn and consequently impacts on post-natal development of brain and visual functions. Whether more clinical studies are needed to control and improve the impact of DHA maternal intakes on the progeny's neurodevelopment, several commissions recommended by precaution that DHA average intake for pregnant and lactating women should be of 200-300 mg/day.
Authors:
Philippe Guesnet; Jean-Marc Alessandri
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-05-15
Journal Detail:
Title:  Biochimie     Volume:  93     ISSN:  1638-6183     ISO Abbreviation:  Biochimie     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-12-21     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1264604     Medline TA:  Biochimie     Country:  France    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  7-12     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
INRA, UR909 Unité de Nutrition et Régulation Lipidique des Fonctions Cérébrales (Nurélice), CRJ, F-78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex, France.
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