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Diverse mechanisms of growth inhibition by luteolin, resveratrol, and quercetin in MIA PaCa-2 cells: a comparative glucose tracer study with the fatty acid synthase inhibitor C75.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22754424     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The rationale of this dose matching/dose escalating study was to compare a panel of flavonoids-luteolin, resveratrol, and quercetin-against the metabolite flux-controlling properties of a synthetic targeted fatty acid synthase inhibitor drug C75 on multiple macromolecule synthesis pathways in pancreatic tumor cells using [1,2-(13)C(2)]-d-glucose as the single precursor metabolic tracer. MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells were cultured for 48 h in the presence of 0.1% DMSO (control), or 50 or 100 μM of each test compound, while intracellular glycogen, RNA ribose, palmitate and cholesterol as well as extra cellular (13)CO(2), lactate and glutamate production patterns were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and stable isotope-based dynamic metabolic profiling (SiDMAP). The use of 50% [1,2-(13)C(2)]-d-glucose as tracer resulted in an average of 24 excess (13)CO(2) molecules for each 1,000 CO(2) molecule in the culture media, which was decreased by 29 and 33% (P < 0.01) with 100 μM C75 and luteolin treatments, respectively. Extracellular tracer glucose-derived (13)C-labeled lactate fractions (Σm) were between 45.52 and 47.49% in all cultures with a molar ratio of 2.47% M + 1/Σm lactate produced indirectly by direct oxidation of glucose in the pentose cycle in control cultures; treatment with 100 μM C75 and luteolin decreased this figure to 1.80 and 1.67%. The tracer glucose-derived (13)C labeled fraction (Σm) of ribonucleotide ribose was 34.73% in controls, which was decreased to 20.58 and 8.45% with C75, 16.15 and 6.86% with luteolin, 27.66 and 19.25% with resveratrol, and 30.09 and 25.67% with quercetin, respectively. Luteolin effectively decreased nucleotide precursor synthesis pentose cycle flux primarily via the oxidative branch, where we observed a 41.74% flux (M + 1/Σm) in control cells, in comparison with only a 37.19%, 32.74%, or a 26.57%, 25.47% M + 1/Σm flux (P < 0.001) after 50 or 100 μM C75 or luteolin treatment. Intracellular de novo fatty acid palmitate (C16:0) synthesis was severely and equally blocked by C75 and luteolin treatments indicated by the 5.49% (control), 2.29 or 2.47% (C75) and 2.21 or 2.73% (luteolin) tracer glucose-derived (13)C-labeled fractions, respectively. On the other hand there was a significant 192 and 159% (P < 0.001), and a 103 and 117% (P < 0.01) increase in tracer glucose-derived cholesterol after C75 or luteolin treatment. Only resveratrol and quercetin at 100 μM inhibited tracer glucose-derived glycogen labeling (Σm) and turnover by 34.8 and 23.8%, respectively. The flavonoid luteolin possesses equal efficacy to inhibit fatty acid palmitate de novo synthesis as well as nucleotide RNA ribose turnover via the oxidative branch of the pentose cycle in comparison with the targeted fatty acid synthase inhibitor synthetic compound C75. Luteolin is also effective in stringently controlling glucose entry and anaplerosis in the TCA cycle, while it promotes less glucose flux towards cholesterol synthesis than that of C75. In contrast, quercetin and resveratrol inhibit glycogen synthesis and turnover as their underlying mechanism of controlling tumor cell proliferation. Therefore the flavonoid luteolin controls fatty and nucleic acid syntheses as well as energy production with pharmacological strength, which can be explored as a non-toxic natural treatment modality for pancreatic cancer.
Authors:
Diane M Harris; Luyi Li; Monica Chen; F Tracy Lagunero; Vay Liang W Go; Laszlo G Boros
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-3-25
Journal Detail:
Title:  Metabolomics : Official journal of the Metabolomic Society     Volume:  8     ISSN:  1573-3890     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-7-3     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101274889     Medline TA:  Metabolomics     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  201-210     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 13-146 Warren Hall, 900 Veteran Ave., Los Angeles, CA, USA dmharris@ucla.edu.
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Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
P01 AT003960-01A1/AT/NCCAM NIH HHS; P01 AT003960-02/AT/NCCAM NIH HHS; P01 AT003960-03/AT/NCCAM NIH HHS; P01 AT003960-04/AT/NCCAM NIH HHS; P01 AT003960-05/AT/NCCAM NIH HHS

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