Document Detail

Disulfiram metabolism as a requirement for the inhibition of rat liver mitochondrial low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  1656985     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
In humans and animals, disulfiram produces a disulfiram-ethanol reaction after an ethanol challenge, the basis of which is the inhibition of liver aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Disulfiram and the metabolites diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), diethyldithiocarbamate-methyl ester (DDTC-Me), and S-methyl-N,N-diethylthiolcarbamate (DETC-Me) were studied in order to determine the role of bioactivation in disulfiram's action as an inhibitor of rat liver mitochondrial low Km ALDH (RLM low Km ALDH). In in vitro studies, disulfiram and DDTC (0.01 to 2.0 mM) both inhibited RLM low Km ALDH in a concentration-dependent manner. The addition of rat liver microsomes to the mitochondrial incubation did not further increase disulfiram-induced RLM low Km ALDH inhibition. However, DDTC-induced RLM low Km ALDH inhibition was increased further, but only at DDTC concentrations less than 0.05 mM. DDTC-Me and DETC-Me (2.0 mM) similarly exhibited an increased RLM low Km ALDH inhibition after the addition of liver microsomes. In in vivo studies, disulfiram (75 mg/kg), DDTC (114 mg/kg), DDTC-Me (41.2 mg/kg) or DETC-Me (18.6 mg/kg) administered i.p. to female rats inhibited RLM low Km ALDH. Inhibition of drug metabolism by pretreatment of rats with the cytochrome P450 inhibitor N-octylimidazole (NOI) (20 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to either disulfiram, DDTC, DDTC-Me or DETC-Me administration blocked the inhibition of RLM low Km ALDH. The in vitro and in vivo data support the conclusion that bioactivation of disulfiram to a reactive chemical species is required for RLM low Km ALDH inhibition and a disulfiram-ethanol reaction.
J J Yourick; M D Faiman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Biochemical pharmacology     Volume:  42     ISSN:  0006-2952     ISO Abbreviation:  Biochem. Pharmacol.     Publication Date:  1991 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1991-10-31     Completed Date:  1991-10-31     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0101032     Medline TA:  Biochem Pharmacol     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1361-6     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Kansas, Lawrence 66045.
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MeSH Terms
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase / antagonists & inhibitors*
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism*
Disulfiram / metabolism*,  pharmacology
Ditiocarb / analogs & derivatives,  pharmacology
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Imidazoles / pharmacology
Mitochondria, Liver / drug effects,  enzymology*
Rats, Inbred Strains
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Imidazoles; 147-84-2/Ditiocarb; 21252-69-7/N-octyl imidazole; 686-07-7/methyl diethyldithiocarbamate; 9035-51-2/Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; 97-77-8/Disulfiram; EC Dehydrogenase

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