Document Detail

Disruption of a tight cluster surrounding tyrosine 131 in the native conformation of antithrombin III activates it for factor Xa inhibition.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16940049     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The native conformation of antithrombin III (ATIII) is a poor inhibitor of its coagulation pathway target enzymes because of the partial insertion of its reactive center loop (RCL) in its central A beta-sheet. This study focused on tyrosine 131, which is located at the helix D-sheet A interface, adjacent to the ATIII pentasaccharide and heparin cofactor-binding sites and some 17A away from the RCL insertion. Crystallographic structures show that the Tyr(131) ring is buried in native ATIII and then becomes exposed when pentasaccharide binds to the inhibitor and activates it. This change suggested that Tyr(131) might serve as a switch for ATIII conformational activation. The hypothesis is supported by results from this study, which progressively removed atoms from the Tyr(131) side chain. Rates of heparin-independent Y131L and Y131A factor Xa inhibition were 25 and 29 times faster than for the control and Y131F, suggesting that Tyr(131) ring interactions with neighboring helix D and strand 2A residues shift the uncatalyzed native-to-activated conformational equilibrium toward the RCL-inserted state. Thermal denaturation experiments showed Y131A and Y131L were less stable than the control and Y131F, implying an increased tendency toward A-sheet mobility in these genetically activated molecules. Thus, the tight Tyr(131)-Asn(127)-Leu(130)-Leu(140)-Ser(142) cluster at the helix D-strand 2A interface of native antithrombin contributes significantly to the stability of the ground state conformation, and tyrosine 131 serves as a heparin-responsive molecular switch during the allosteric activation of ATIII anticoagulant activity.
Richard Glenn C dela Cruz; Mohamad Aman Jairajpuri; Susan C Bock
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Date:  2006-08-28
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of biological chemistry     Volume:  281     ISSN:  0021-9258     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Biol. Chem.     Publication Date:  2006 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-10-16     Completed Date:  2006-12-06     Revised Date:  2007-12-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  2985121R     Medline TA:  J Biol Chem     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  31668-76     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Medicine, the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Allosteric Site
Anticoagulants / chemistry
Antithrombin III / chemistry*
Antithrombins / chemistry
Binding Sites
Crystallography, X-Ray
Factor Xa / antagonists & inhibitors*
Heparin / chemistry
Protein Structure, Secondary
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Tyrosine / chemistry*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Anticoagulants; 0/Antithrombins; 55520-40-6/Tyrosine; 9000-94-6/Antithrombin III; 9005-49-6/Heparin; EC Xa

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