|Disparate requirements for the Walker A and B ATPase motifs of human RAD51D in homologous recombination.|
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|PMID: 16717288 Owner: NLM Status: MEDLINE|
|In vertebrates, homologous recombinational repair (HRR) requires RAD51 and five RAD51 paralogs (XRCC2, XRCC3, RAD51B, RAD51C and RAD51D) that all contain conserved Walker A and B ATPase motifs. In human RAD51D we examined the requirement for these motifs in interactions with XRCC2 and RAD51C, and for survival of cells in response to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Ectopic expression of wild-type human RAD51D or mutants having a non-functional A or B motif was used to test for complementation of a rad51d knockout hamster CHO cell line. Although A-motif mutants complement very efficiently, B-motif mutants do not. Consistent with these results, experiments using the yeast two- and three-hybrid systems show that the interactions between RAD51D and its XRCC2 and RAD51C partners also require a functional RAD51D B motif, but not motif A. Similarly, hamster Xrcc2 is unable to bind to the non-complementing human RAD51D B-motif mutants in co-immunoprecipitation assays. We conclude that a functional Walker B motif, but not A motif, is necessary for RAD51D's interactions with other paralogs and for efficient HRR. We present a model in which ATPase sites are formed in a bipartite manner between RAD51D and other RAD51 paralogs.|
|Claudia Wiese; John M Hinz; Robert S Tebbs; Peter B Nham; Salustra S Urbin; David W Collins; Larry H Thompson; David Schild|
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|Type: Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. Date: 2006-05-22|
|Title: Nucleic acids research Volume: 34 ISSN: 1362-4962 ISO Abbreviation: Nucleic Acids Res. Publication Date: 2006|
|Created Date: 2006-05-23 Completed Date: 2006-06-07 Revised Date: 2011-10-03|
Medline Journal Info:
|Nlm Unique ID: 0411011 Medline TA: Nucleic Acids Res Country: England|
|Languages: eng Pagination: 2833-43 Citation Subset: IM|
|Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org|
|APA/MLA Format Download EndNote Download BibTex|
Amino Acid Motifs
Amino Acid Sequence
DNA-Binding Proteins / chemistry*, genetics, metabolism
Genetic Complementation Test
Molecular Sequence Data
Rad51 Recombinase / metabolism
Two-Hybrid System Techniques
|CA112566/CA/NCI NIH HHS; CA89405/CA/NCI NIH HHS; P01 CA92584/CA/NCI NIH HHS|
|0/DNA-Binding Proteins; 0/RAD51D protein, human; EC 2.7.7.-/Rad51 Recombinase; EC 3.6.1.-/Adenosine Triphosphatases|
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Nucleic Acids Res
Journal ID (publisher-id): Nucleic Acids Research
Publisher: Oxford University Press
? The Author 2006. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved
openaccess: The online version of this article has been published under an open access model. Users are entitled to use, reproduce, disseminate, or display the open access version of this article for non-commercial purposes provided that: the original authorship is properly and fully attributed; the Journal and Oxford University Press are attributed as the original place of publication with the correct citation details given; if an article is subsequently reproduced or disseminated not in its entirety but only in part or as a derivative work this must be clearly indicated. For commercial re-use, please contact email@example.com
Received Day: 18 Month: 4 Year: 2006
Accepted Day: 26 Month: 4 Year: 2006
collection publication date: Year: 2006
Print publication date: Year: 2006
Electronic publication date: Day: 22 Month: 5 Year: 2006
Volume: 34 Issue: 9
First Page: 2833 Last Page: 2843
PubMed Id: 16717288
|Disparate requirements for the Walker A and B ATPase motifs of human RAD51D in homologous recombination|
|John M. Hinz1|
|Robert S. Tebbs1|
|Peter B. Nham1|
|Salustra S. Urbin1|
|David W. Collins|
|Larry H. Thompson1|
|Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeley, CA 94720, USA
1Biosciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryP.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551, USA
|Correspondence: *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +1 510 486 4024; Fax: +1 510 486 6816; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent a severe form of DNA damage that can lead to mutations and cell death if repaired incorrectly. Cells have evolved multiple mechanisms to repair DSBs, including the high fidelity process of homologous recombinational repair (HRR) (1,2), which contributes significantly to the repair of DSBs in cycling cells (3), such as those generated at the replication fork during interstrand crosslink (ICL) removal. In vertebrates, HRR is highly conserved and mediated by the bacterial RecA ortholog, the Rad51 recombinase and five Rad51 paralogs (XRCC2, XRCC3, Rad51B, Rad51C and Rad51D). Though the biochemical functions of these paralogs in HRR are not well understood, they have been proposed to function in early steps (4?7) and in late steps (7?11) of recombination. The Rad51 paralogs are necessary for cellular resistance to DSBs (12,13), have no functional redundancy (14) and share limited sequence homology with Rad51 and with each other [?20% identity; reviewed in (15)]. The regions of highest sequence homology are the putative ATP-binding domains: the conserved Walker A and Walker B motifs (12,13,15,16).
In human cells, several RAD51 paralog complexes have been identified, among them the RAD51B-RAD51C-RAD51D-XRCC2 heterotetramer, and three heterodimers: RAD51B-RAD51C, RAD51D-XRCC2 and RAD51C-XRCC3(4,17?24). The RAD51B-RAD51C and RAD51D-XRCC2 complexes were shown to bind to single- and double-stranded DNA and to hydrolyze ATP, an activity enhanced by DNA binding (4,19,25,26). The heterotetramer also exhibited ATPase activity and preferentially bound to Y-shaped DNA and synthetic Holliday junctions (27).
The Walker ATPase domain (28) consists of two separate motifs, A and B, crucial components of the nucleotide-binding site. The lysine residue in the GKT/S box of the Walker A motif is essential for ATP-binding and contacts the ?-phosphate of the nucleotide (29). The highly conserved aspartate/glutamate of the Walker B motif forms hydrogen bonds with the threonine/serine of the GKT/S box and with a bound water molecule (30) and facilitates nucleotide hydrolysis.
In human RAD51, non-conservative (no ATP binding) K133A substitution in the Walker A motif did not rescue the Rad51-deficient lethality of chicken DT40 cells while the conservative (ATP binding, but no hydrolysis) K133R substitution only gave a partially defective phenotype (31). In in vitro assays, human RAD51-K133R showed an increased stability of presynaptic filament formation and enhanced homologous pairing activity compared to the wild-type protein (32), but in a dominant-negative approach, expression of human RAD51-K133R in a mouse embryonic stem cell line specifically inhibited homology-directed DSB repair (33). In the Walker B motif of human RAD51, mutation in the highly conserved aspartate (D222A), but not V221A or S223A, was shown to eliminate protein function in the DT40 system (31). For the human RAD51 paralogs, mutations within the Walker A motif of RAD51C and XRCC3 were shown to greatly reduce cellular resistance to ICLs (34,35), but mutation in the Walker A motif in XRCC2 had little effect on complementing ability (36). Substitution of the conserved aspartate residue in the Walker B motif of human XRCC3 (D213N) resulted in increased spontaneous apoptosis and complete loss of gene-complementing activity for cell survival to ICL damage in the CHO xrcc3 mutant (37,38). Evidence suggests that nucleotide binding and hydrolysis play important roles in the formation of RAD51 paralog complexes. For example, in XRCC3, the inability to hydrolyze bound ATP (i.e. a Walker A GRT substitution) blocks the interaction with RAD51C (35). A study of the paralog interactions of mouse Rad51D Walker A mutants has also been reported (39), and these results are discussed later.
In this study, Walker-motif mutants of RAD51D were tested for their ability to complement the MMC sensitivity of CHO rad51d knockout cells [hereafter written as rad51d cells; (2)]. Surprisingly, RAD51D mutants of the GKT box of the Walker A motif rescued the MMC sensitivity of RAD51D cells, whereas B-motif mutants did not complement. In addition, whereas A-motif mutations had little effect on the interaction of rad51d with binding partners XRCC2 and RAD51C, mutations in the B-motif disrupted these interactions. These results constitute the novel finding of a differential requirement for the Walker A and B motifs of a human ATPase.
Parental CHO cells (strain AA8) and 51D1Lox and 51D1 (rad51d) derivatives (2) were grown in monolayer or suspension cultures in MEM-alpha medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 ?g/ml streptomycin and 100 U/ml penicillin. For the experiments involving chronic MMC exposures and the generation of denatured and crude protein lysates from rad51d derivatives, cells were grown under selection in 700 ?g/ml hygromycin B.
The RAD51D cDNA was PCR amplified from plasmid pDS200 (40) and subcloned into pcDNA3.1/hygro (Invitrogen) from HindIII to NheI. The entire RAD51D open reading frame (ORF) was verified by direct sequencing. Mutations were introduced using the QuickChange Site-directed mutagenesis II kit (Stratagene), and missense mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing of the entire ORF. Mutagenic primers were designed to create the following changes to the amino acid sequence of RAD51D: K113R, 5?-GGCCCAGGTAGCGGCCGCACTCAGGTATGTCTCTGTATGGC-3?; K113A, 5?-GGCCCAGGTAGCGGCGCTACTCAGGTATGTCTCTGTATGGC-3?; V203E, 5?-GGAACTGTGAAGGTGGAGGTTGTGGACTCGGTCACTGCGG-3?; and D206A, 5?-GGAACTGTGAAGGTGGTGGTTGTGGCTTCGGTCACTGCGG-3? (only forward primers are shown; reverse primers had the complementary sequence).
The yeast strain Y190-ura? (40) was used for all yeast two- and three-hybrid experiments. For yeast two-hybrid analyses, Y190-ura? was co-transformed with both a DNA-binding domain [pGBT9; (41)] and a transcription-activating domain fusion plasmid [pGAD424; (41)] and transformants were recovered on selective media (i.e. synthetic complete media lacking leucine and tryptophan: SC ?Leu, ?Trp). For yeast three-hybrid analyses, RAD51B was expressed from pVT100U, a yeast expression vector containing the URA3 selectable marker (42) as described in (40). To test three-hybrid interactions, strains containing two plasmids, grown in SC ?Leu, ?Ura, were transformed with the third plasmid, derived from pGBT9, and selected on plates lacking leucine, tryptophan and uracil. Four independent colonies for all transformations were assayed qualitatively for ?-galactosidase activity using X-gal filter assay (43). To quantify the strength of protein?protein interactions, liquid ?-galactosidase assays were performed using o-nitrophenyl-?-galactopyranoside (Sigma) as a substrate as described (43). All quantitative ?-galactosidase activity assays were performed on three to five independent colonies, each monitored in triplicate. Standard error of the mean (SEM) was determined among independent colonies. Yeast two-hybrid plasmids for RAD51D, XRCC2 and RAD51C are described in (40). Mutations were introduced into the RAD51D using site-directed mutagenesis and mutagenic primers as described above. Mutations were introduced into the XRCC2 ORF using the QuickChange site-directed mutagenesis II kit (Stratagene). Missense mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing of the entire ORF. Mutagenic primers for XRCC2 were designed as follows: K54R, 5?-GGCCCAGAAGGAACAGGACGCACAGAAATGC-3?; K54A, 5?-GGCCCAGAAGGAACAGGAGCTACAGAAATGC-3?; D149A, 5?-GCCTTTTGATTTTGGCCAGCCTGTCAGCTTTTTACTGG-3?; L148S, 5?-GCCTTTTGATTTCAGATAGCCTGTCAGCTTTTTACTGG-3?; (only forward primers are shown; reverse primers had the complementary sequence).
To monitor the expression levels of Gal4-RAD51D in Y190U-ura? transformants, whole cell protein extracts were generated according to published procedures (44). Western blot analysis was carried out as described elsewhere (22), and filters were probed with 1:2000 diluted primary anti-RAD51D (Novus Biologicals). The signal for actin (dilution 1:300; Santa Cruz Biotech) was used as a loading control. Detection was carried out using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody (Jackson ImmunoResearch; 0.4 mg/ml). Filters were incubated with Supersignal WestPico substrate kit (Pierce Chemical) followed by exposure to Hyperfilm ECL (Amersham Biosciences).
For recombinant expression of GST-XRCC2 and His6-RAD51D, respective cDNAs were inserted into the baculovirus transfer vector pFASTBAC? DUAL (Invitrogen). The glutathione S-transferase (GST) ORF flanked by a PreScission Protease cleavage site was inserted upstream and in frame with the XRCC2 ORF. For PCR amplification of the RAD51D cDNA an N-terminal His6-tag was built in the forward primer. Proteins were expressed in Sf9 insect cells and purified to 80% homogeneity. One L of insect cell culture was harvested at 72 h post-infection, and cells were pelleted at 1600 g (Sorvall GSA rotor) and resuspended in 20 ml of cell lysis buffer [20 mM HEPES (pH 8.0), 100 mM NaCl, 10% glycerol, 0.5 mM phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), 5 ?g/ml aprotinin and 5 ?g/ml leupeptin]. The cell suspension was incubated on ice for 20 min, sonicated and clarified by ultracentrifugation at 110?000 g (Beckman 70.1 Ti rotor) for 20 min. The supernatant was applied to a 5 ml Glutathione Sepharose 4 FF column (Amersham Biosciences) equilibrated with 10 column volumes buffer A [1 ? phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 10% glycerol]. Bound GST-XRCC2:His6-RAD51D complex was washed with 10 column volumes buffer A and eluted with buffer B [10 mM glutathione, 50 mM Tris?HCl (pH 8.0), 10% glycerol]. Peak fractions were pooled and dialyzed into PreScission Protease cleavage buffer [50 mM Tris?HCl (pH 8.0), 150 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 10% glycerol, 1 mM DTT, 0.5 mM PMSF, 5 ?g/ml aprotinin and 5 ?g/ml leupeptin] for subsequent cleavage by PreScission Protease according to the manufacturer's description (Amersham Biosciences). Following cleavage, the protein was diluted 1:1 with 100% glycerol and stored at ?80?C.
Transfectants of rad51d cells (2) that stably express wild-type or mutant human RAD51D protein were created by electroporation (625 V/cm, 950 ?F) using Gene Pulser II (Bio-Rad). A total of 1 ? 106 cells were electroporated in 400 ?l cytomix buffer using 10 ?g of linearized plasmid (45). Twenty-four hours post-transfection, cells were plated into 10 cm dishes at ?104 cells/dish in 20 ml of medium containing hygromycin B (700 ?g/ml) and incubated for 12 days for colony formation. Ten colonies were isolated and expanded for each transfected plasmid and analyzed for expression of the transgene by western blot analysis (22). Filters were probed with 1:2000 diluted primary anti-RAD51D (Novus Biologicals). The signal for the transcription factor QM (dilution 1:10?000; Santa Cruz Biotech) was used as a loading control. Detection was carried out using HRP-conjugated goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody (Jackson ImmunoResearch; 0.4 mg/ml). Filters were incubated with Supersignal WestPico substrate kit (Pierce Chemical) followed by exposure to Hyperfilm ECL (Amersham Biosciences).
MMC sensitivity was determined by colony formation assay in 10 cm dishes. Exposure to MMC (Sigma) was conducted in 10 ml suspension cultures. For each dose, 1 ? 106 cells were exposed to MMC for 60 min at 37?C, centrifuged and resuspended in fresh medium for plating. For each dose, 300 or more cells were plated in triplicate. After 12 days of growth, dishes were rinsed with saline, fixed with 95% ethanol and stained with Gram Crystal Violet. Colonies with >50 cells were scored.
To test for complementation directly in transfected cell populations, transfections were carried out as described above. Twenty-four hours post-transfection, cells were trypsinized and re-seeded at 4 ? 104 cells/well in 6-well plates in regular growth medium containing hygromycin B without MMC, or with MMC at various concentrations. Colonies were fixed and stained after 12 days of growth. The surviving fraction of colonies was calculated as the ratio of the number of colonies in selection in MMC and hygromycin B to the number of colonies in the presence of hygromycin B only. For comparison purposes, untransfected AA8 were plated at 200 cells/well in regular growth medium lacking hygromycin B, both with and without MMC. In addition, rad51d cells were transfected with the empty vector control (pcDNA3.1/hygro) and plated at 4 ? 104 cells/well in regular growth medium containing hygromycin B without or with MMC. The transfection efficiencies for all plasmids used were determined in a separate experiment. Plasmids were electroporated as described above and cells were plated 24 h post transfection in regular growth medium containing hygromycin B. The stable transfection efficiencies were found to be similar for all plasmids used and were 0.27 ? 0.03%.
Immunoprecipitation was performed as described previously (22) using native cellular protein extracts from untransfected rad51d and AA8 cells and rad51d cells stably expressing either wild-type or mutant RAD51D. Immunoprecipitation was carried out using MagnaBind goat anti-rabbit IgG magnetic beads (Pierce) and anti-RAD51D antibody (Novus Biologicals) or control antibody (rabbit IgG, Santa Cruz Biotech). The polyclonal rabbit anti-human XRCC2 antibody for direct immunoprecipitation of hamster Xrcc2 was kindly provided by Dr P. Sung. Western blots were probed with 1:2000 diluted primary anti-RAD51D and 1:1000 diluted primary anti-XRCC2 antibody (Santa Cruz Biotech). Detection was carried out using HRP-conjugated goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody (see above) or bovine anti-goat secondary antibody (1:10 000; Santa Cruz Biotech). Filters were incubated as described above for analysis of RAD51D-expressing rad51d cells. To visualize co-immunoprecipitated hamster Xrcc2, filters were incubated with ECL-Advance (Amersham Biosciences).
Following transfection of rad51d cells [clone 51D1; (2)] with the wild-type RAD51D expression construct, colonies were selected for hygromycin resistance. To test whether these clones stably expressed the human cDNA, we picked 10 independent colonies and expanded them to mass cultures for western blot analysis. As shown in Figure 1A, seven of these clones stably expressed the transgene. Since the expression levels for RAD51D protein varied, one clone expressing a lower level of the protein (WT1; WT for wild-type) and one expressing a higher level (WT2) were selected to test whether ectopic expression of human RAD51D rescued the very high (?80-fold) MMC sensitivity of rad51d cells (2). Using the colony formation assay for cell survival, we found that both clones WT2 and WT1 were efficiently complemented; their MMC resistance was similar to that of the wild-type AA8 cells (Figure 2A and B, respectively). We also observed that the parent of 51D1, 51D1Lox, which contains functional Rad51D alleles prior to Cre-recombinase treatment (2), was slightly more sensitive to MMC (?2-fold; determined from D37 values) than AA8 cells or rad51d cells expressing wild-type human RAD51D (Figure 2A and B). We explain this observation in part by the fact that the endogenous hamster Rad51D protein level in AA8 cells (and possibly the human protein in clones WT1 and WT2) is higher than in 51D1Lox cells (2). However, due to interspecies variation in antibody recognition it is not possible for us to compare the protein levels in 51D1Lox cells (i.e. hamster Rad51D) to that in the transfectants (i.e. human RAD51D).
We tested whether a conservative amino acid substitution (K113R; binds but does not hydrolyze ATP), or a non-conservative substitution (K113A; unable to bind ATP), in the GKT box of the Walker motif A influenced the ability of RAD51D to complement the rad51d mutant. We transfected rad51d cells with each mutant construct (GRT and GAT; see Figure 1E) and isolated 10 independent clones for each mutant. As shown in Figure 1B and C by western blot analysis, the protein expression levels of independent clones stably expressing either mutant of RAD51D varied. As with the cells expressing the wild-type RAD51D construct, for each mutant we choose a low-expressing clone (GAT2 and GRT3 (GRT2 was added in follow-up experiments); see Figure 1C and B, respectively), and a high expressing clone (GRT6 and GAT4; see Figure 1B and C, respectively). We found that stable expression of either mutant protein largely complemented MMC sensitivity of rad51d cells (Figure 2A and B). The degree of MMC resistance of the high-expressing lines (GRT6 and GAT4) was similar to that of AA8 cells and rad51d cells expressing wild-type RAD51D (WT2) (Figure 2A). For the low-expressing lines (GRT2, GRT3 and GAT2), complementation was less complete [?2- to 3-fold lower, as determined from the D37 values (Figure 2B)]. However, these lower expressing lines were clearly no more sensitive to MMC than parental 51D1Lox cells that express reduced levels of hamster Rad51D [Figure 2B; (2)].
Since we observed almost no abnormality in cellular phenotype for the Walker A-motif mutations, we hypothesized that the Walker B motif may predominately determine the function of RAD51D. To test this possibility, we mutated the highly conserved aspartate (D206) to alanine (D206A; see Figure 1E). For comparison purposes, we also made the previously uncharacterized V203E substitution within motif B of RAD51D. This valine was chosen for mutagenesis as it is conserved among the human RAD51 paralogs RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D and XRCC3, and in mouse and hamster Rad51D. Both expression constructs (V203E and D206A) were separately transfected into rad51d cells, and cells were selected in the continuous presence of either hygromycin alone or hygromycin plus increasing concentrations of MMC. The extent of complementation for expression of all RAD51D constructs was assessed by comparing the number of colonies arising in hygromycin and MMC to the number of colonies arising in hygromycin alone. As shown in Figure 2C, ectopic expression of either RAD51D-V203E or RAD51D-D206A does not result in complementation of MMC sensitivity of rad51d cells measured by colony formation. Conversely, in this same method of analysis, expression of wild-type RAD51D, or the Walker A box mutants RAD51D-K113R and RAD51D-K113A resulted in high MMC resistance (Figure 2C) albeit expression of either K113R or K113A did not fully protect against killing. Whether these latter modest reductions are biochemically significant is unclear since the expression levels of the A-motif mutant proteins could be slightly lower than that of wild-type. As with the A-motif mutants, both B-motif mutants are expressed stably in rad51d cells (Figure 1D).
As RAD51D B-motif mutants are unable to repair MMC-induced DNA damage, we investigated whether disruptions occur in the interactions between RAD51D and its known paralog partners. To do so, we employed the yeast two- and three-hybrid systems and tested whether mutant RAD51D would be able to interact with either XRCC2 or RAD51C. Each of the described forms of RAD51D (wild-type, K113R, K113A, V203E and D206A) was generated by site-directed mutagenesis using previously described vectors carrying wild-type RAD51D (40). First, each RAD51D protein was tested for binding to wild-type XRCC2 in both orientations (Figure 3A). The average strength of the RAD51D-K113R:XRCC2 interactions was 75 or 57% of the wild-type RAD51D:XRCC2 interaction (dependent on the orientation of the Gal4-fusion), and the average strength of RAD51D-K113A:XRCC2 interactions was very close to wild-type levels (100 and 90%, depending on the orientation tested; see Figure 3A).
Strikingly, both B-motif mutants displayed greatly reduced interaction with XRCC2 in either fusion orientation (Figure 3A). The average strength of the RAD51D-V203E:XRCC2 interactions was determined to be at 1 and 3% of the wild-type interaction, and the average strength of the RAD51D-D206A:XRCC2 interactions was at 3 and 11% of the wild-type interaction (depending on the orientation tested). To ensure that the RAD51D mutants are produced in amounts adequate to detect positive protein interactions in the yeast two-hybrid system, we tested the protein expression levels for Gal4-RAD51D and its mutant forms by immunoblotting of total protein extracts (Figure 3C). As for the wild-type, all mutant forms of the Gal-RAD51D fusions were produced at high levels in yeast. Although K113R, V203E and D206A were repeatedly expressed at slightly lower levels than the wild-type and K113A, the failure of XRCC2 to interact with V203E and D206A is not due to the unavailability of these mutant proteins in yeast. For example, even though K113R and V203E are expressed at similar levels, they differ greatly in their ability to interact with XRCC2 (see Figure 3A and 3C).
The interaction between human RAD51D and RAD51C, when tested in the yeast two-hybrid system, is comparatively weak, making it difficult to quantitatively assess protein?protein interactions that potentially are reduced even further. However, co-expression of RAD51B, in a non-fused form, has been shown previously to greatly enhance the strength of the RAD51D:RAD51C interaction in a yeast three-hybrid system (40). Furthermore, in vivo a stable RAD51D-RAD51C heterodimer has not been discovered, whereas RAD51D and RAD51C were shown to be part of the heterotetramer that also contains RAD51B and XRCC2 (20?22,24). For these reasons, we used the yeast three-hybrid system to assess the ability of either wild-type or mutant RAD51D to interact with RAD51C when RAD51B is co-expressed. We found that the average strength of interactions between Walker A K113R and RAD51C was reduced to 60% of the wild-type level, and the average strength of interactions between Walker A K113A and RAD51C was at 67% of the wild-type interaction (Figure 3B). Notably, the interactions between RAD51D Walker B mutants and RAD51C were virtually eliminated, not differing from the negative control (Figure 3B).
To investigate in vivo complex formation between wild-type or mutant human RAD51D and hamster Xrcc2, we performed reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation in extracts from rad51d clones that stably express the ectopic proteins at similar levels. We found that hamster Xrcc2 is present specifically in anti-RAD51D immunoprecipitated complexes from clone WT2 (which overexpresses wild-type RAD51D) and not immunoprecipitated using IgG control antibody (Figure 4A). In addition, CHO cells appear to express two isoforms of Xrcc2 (as indicated by the double arrows in Figure 4A?C) that both bind to RAD51D. The faster migrating isoform displays the same mobility as recombinant human XRCC2 (Figure 4C), while the second isoform appears to be larger and migrates with a shift that corresponds to a 2?3 kD difference in molecular weight. It is likely, but not clear yet, that this larger form of hamster Xrcc2 may be a modified version of the protein. We also have observed both isoforms of Xrcc2 in V79 hamster cells but not in mouse mammary epithelial cells (data not shown). Importantly, Xrcc2 was present in anti-RAD51D immunoprecipitated complexes from rad51d cells overexpressing A-motif mutants (K113R and K113A), but absent in anti-RAD51D immunoprecipitated complexes from B-motif mutants (D206A and V203E; Figure 4B). Although reproducibly at lower levels compared to the wild-type expressing line (WT2; here: GKT), Xrcc2 was always present in anti-RAD51D immunoprecipitated complexes from clones GAT4 and GRT6, which overexpress Walker A K113A and K113R mutant protein, respectively. Anti-RAD51D immunoprecipitated complexes from parental AA8 and rad51d cells contained neither RAD51D nor Xrcc2, demonstrating the inability of the anti-RAD51D antibody to recognize the hamster Rad51D protein in AA8 cells and the absence of human RAD51D in rad51d cells.
In reciprocal experiments we analyzed anti-Xrcc2 immunoprecipitated complexes from all cell lines for the presence of RAD51D (Figure 4C). We found that the amounts of endogenous Xrcc2 directly precipitated by anti-XRCC2 antibody varied greatly among all cell lines tested (even though their expression levels for ectopic RAD51D were comparable; see Figure 1). Only small amounts of Xrcc2 were precipitated from extracts of rad51d cells and rad51d cells expressing Walker B-motif mutants D206A or V203E (Figure 4C). Significantly larger amounts of Xrcc2 were precipitated from cells overexpressing wild-type RAD51D, K113R or K113A and from AA8 cells. (Note: for AA8 cells only 1/16 of the amount of the precipitated complex was loaded onto the gel, relative to all other cell lines). We reproducibly detected wild-type RAD51D (here: GKT), K113R and K113A in anti-Xrcc2 immunoprecipitated complexes (Figure 4C, lower panel). Not surprisingly, only small amounts of Walker B mutant proteins were present in anti-Xrcc2 complexes from rad51d cells overexpressing either V203E or D206A (Figure 4C). In sum, these results show that ectopically expressed wild-type RAD51D, or RAD51D with mutations in the Walker A motif, formed a stable complex with hamster Xrcc2. Conversely, motif-B mutants, although expressed at similar levels, had reduced levels of hamster Xrcc2, probably due to the inability to stabilize this protein as a RAD51D-Xrcc2 heterodimer (Figure 5C; see Discussion).
As we observed little decrease in interaction between RAD51D A-motif mutants and Xrcc2/XRCC2 both in vivo and in the yeast two-hybrid system, we hypothesized that XRCC2's Walker A motif participates in nucleotide-binding within the XRCC2-RAD51D heterodimer. Interestingly, a newly identified Rad51 paralog in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Rlp1, having homology to human XRCC2 shows a conserved Walker A motif but no clearly defined Walker B motif (46). Therefore, we made the conservative K54R and non-conservative K54A substitutions in the Walker A motif of XRCC2, using previously described yeast two-hybrid plasmids (40), and assayed their interaction with wild-type RAD51D, RAD51D-K113R or RAD51D-K113A qualitatively and in both orientations by X-Gal filter assay (Figure 5A and B, respectively). XRCC2-K54A was greatly impaired in binding to wild-type RAD51D and mutant RAD51D (Figure 5A and B, respectively; light blue and white colonies). However, XRCC2-K54R was able to interact with wild-type RAD51D and both motif-A mutants of RAD51D (Figure 5A and B, respectively). In addition, we introduced L148S or D149A amino acid substitutions within the Walker B motif of XRCC2 and assessed whether these XRCC2 mutants could interact with wild-type RAD51D in the yeast two-hybrid system. Both XRCC2-L148S and XRCC2-D149A were impaired in binding to wild-type RAD51D, although B-motif mutants of XRCC2 appeared to be less detrimental to the XRCC2:RAD51D interaction than B-motif mutants of RAD51D (Figure 5C; see Discussion).
To our knowledge we have described the first human ATPase with disparate requirements for two highly conserved Walker A/B motifs, both of which are generally crucial components of the nucleotide-binding site. Because of the complete loss of RAD51D function caused by amino acid substitution within its conserved B motif, the contrasting finding, of normal biological function for GKT substitutions within the A motif, was quite unexpected. Moreover, a recent study of mouse Rad51D using rad51d mouse cells, in which only A-motif mutants were examined, reached the opposite conclusion, ?that conservation of Walker Motif A is required for a physiological role of RAD51D? (39). Relative to the wild-type control, these authors reported ?90% decrease in cell survival after exposure to MMC for K113R and K113A mutants in bulk transfected cell populations. However, these investigators did not perform standard MMC dose-response measurements to calculate the dose-reduction factor of cell sensitivity associated with the mouse Rad51D mutant forms. Since we also observed a slightly increased sensitivity to MMC (calculated by dose-reduction factor) under some conditions for both acute and chronic exposures (Figure 2B and C), the only discrepancy between our survival data and theirs is the extent of reduced complementation by the A-motif mutants.
In addition, Gruver et al. (39) reported moderately impaired interactions of mouse Rad51D A-motif mutants with Xrcc2, but strongly impaired interactions with Rad51C in the yeast two-hybrid system. Although we also found greatly impaired interactions between the human RAD51D Walker A mutants and RAD51C in yeast two-hybrid experiments when monitored qualitatively (data not shown), in the yeast three-hybrid system we found that these interactions were only moderately affected when tested in the presence of RAD51B. As discussed in the Results above, we believe that the yeast three-hybrid system more closely reflects the in vivo interaction context.
Similar to our finding of gross defects associated with the B-motif D206A mutant of RAD51D, human XRCC3 substitution at the corresponding aspartate (D213N) dramatically reduced MMC resistance when expressed in hamster xrcc3 irs1SF cells (37). As suggested by others (31,37), substitution of this highly conserved aspartate likely disrupts ATP binding and/or hydrolysis activity. Nonetheless, XRCC3 does behave differently from RAD51D in that both Walker motifs are critical for XRCC3's function (35,37).
We presented evidence that alterations in the Walker B motif of RAD51D (V203E or D206A substitutions) greatly impair RAD51D-XRCC2 complex formation. Co-immunoprecipitation clearly shows that, in the presence of these non-complementing RAD51D mutant proteins, there is much less hamster Xrcc2 protein than under conditions where complementing RAD51D (i.e. wild-type or motif-A mutants) is available. It is important to note from these experiments that the rad51d knockout cell line itself (i.e. untransfected) also expresses greatly reduced levels of endogenous Xrcc2 protein when compared to its AA8 parent line, which expresses wild-type hamster Rad51D (Figure 4C). Our findings are consistent with several studies showing the stabilization of RAD51 paralogs by each other in vivo (7,22,47,48), but our data additionally demonstrate that the ability to interact directly is required for this stabilization. In addition, neither Walker B-motif mutant is able to interact with the RAD51B:RAD51C heterodimer in the yeast three-hybrid system.
The loss of RAD51D-XRCC2 and RAD51D-RAD51C interactions by disruption of nucleotide binding (V203E or D206A substitutions) raises the question of which biochemical defect (nucleotide binding or protein?protein interaction) is responsible for the cellular phenotype of high sensitivity to MMC. Our preferred view is that the role of the ATPase activity that is blocked by the V203E and D206A substitutions is to mediate a conformational change that promotes tight binding of RAD51D with XRCC2 and/or RAD51C. In this model ATPase site integrity and protein interaction are inseparable.
Reiterative changes in protein conformation are important for the assembly of multi-subunit protein complexes that function in DNA repair [for review see (49)]. Rad51 family members induce these conformational changes, necessary to fulfill protein function, by binding and hydrolysis of ATP [for review see (30)]. X-ray crystal structures (50?54) and electron microscopy reconstructions (53?55) of several Rad51 homologs have provided evidence that ATP-binding occurs at the subunit interface by contacting several highly conserved residues on neighboring subunits. We surmise that human RAD51D, through its Walker B motif, may rely on the A motif of another RAD51 paralog to form an active ATPase.
Overall, our results suggest that RAD51D must form a complex with XRCC2 and/or RAD51C to maintain cellular resistance to MMC. We showed that both interactions require a normal RAD51D Walker B motif, but not an intact A motif. We speculate that the binding of ATP to RAD51D occurs through its Walker B box as part of a bipartite nucleotide-binding site interacting with XRCC2 and/or RAD51C, as illustrated in Figure 6. In Figure 6A, the B motif of RAD51D interacts with the A motif of XRCC2. We showed that mutations in either of these motifs block the interaction; disruption of the XRCC2 A motif via K54A substitution (but not K54R substitution) greatly diminishes its binding to RAD51D in the yeast two-hybrid system (Figure 5A and B). One published observation is inconsistent with the idea that the RAD51D-XRCC2 interaction is important for efficient DNA repair. In that study, the XRCC2 A-motif K45A mutant showed only modest decrements in MMC resistance in irs1 V79 cells transfected with mutant proteins (36) (although western blotting of these transfectants was not used to standardize the expressed XRCC2 protein levels). Moreover, in our yeast two-hybrid studies amino acid substitutions within the Walker B motif of XRCC2, though clearly affecting the XRCC2:RAD51D interaction, appear to be less deleterious to XRCC2:RAD51D complex formation in comparison with the RAD51D B-motif mutants (Figure 5C). Figure 6B depicts an ATPase site composed of the B motif of RAD51D and the A motif of RAD51C. Similar to our results for the B motif of RAD51D, mutations in the A motif of RAD51C also cause 80?100% loss of DNA repair efficiency (34). Although RAD51D-RAD51C interactions were not examined in that study, we found a severe RAD51D:RAD51C interaction defect in the yeast three-hybrid system for the RAD51D B-motif mutants (Figure 3).
In conclusion, we provide evidence that the Walker B motif of human RAD51D is critically important for complex formation with other RAD51 paralogs and for cellular resistance to ICLs. Since both Walker B-motif substitutions (V203E and D206A) yielded a similar phenotype, we propose that these substitutions not only abrogate ATP hydrolysis, but also simultaneously prevent one or more critical interaction(s) and conformational changes underlying RAD51D's participation in complexes, whose integrity is necessary for recombinational repair.
The authors are grateful to Drs M.-S. Tsai and M. Berardini for baculovirus transfer vector construction and help with protein purification. This work was supported by NCI/NIH P01 grant CA92584 (D.S.) titled Structural Cell Biology of DNA Repair Machines and NASA grant NNJ05HI36I (C.W.). The portion of this work done at LLNL was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48 where the DOE Low-Dose Program and NCI/NIH grants CA89405 and CA112566 funded this work. Funding to pay the Open Access publication charges for this article was provided by NCI/NIH P01 grant CA92584.
Conflict of interest statement. None declared.
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