Document Detail


Disjunctive illusory inferences and how to eliminate them.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19487753     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The mental model theory of reasoning postulates that individuals construct mental models of the possibilities in which the premises of an inference hold and that these models represent what is true but not what is false. An unexpected consequence of this assumption is that certain premises should yield systematically invalid inferences. This prediction is unique among current theories of reasoning, because no alternative theory, whether based on formal rules of inference or on probabilistic considerations, predicts these illusory inferences. We report three studies of novel illusory inferences that depend on embedded disjunctions-for example, premises of this sort: A or else (B or else C). The theory distinguishes between those embedded disjunctions that should yield illusions and those that should not. In Experiment 1, we corroborated this distinction. In Experiment 2, we extended the illusory inferences to a more stringently controlled set of problems. In Experiment 3, we established a novel method for reducing illusions by calling for participants to make auxiliary inferences.
Authors:
Sangeet Khemlani; P N Johnson-Laird
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Memory & cognition     Volume:  37     ISSN:  0090-502X     ISO Abbreviation:  Mem Cognit     Publication Date:  2009 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-06-02     Completed Date:  2009-08-14     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0357443     Medline TA:  Mem Cognit     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  615-23     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA. khemlani@princeton.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Association Learning*
Choice Behavior
Conflict (Psychology)
Culture*
Humans
Illusions*
Judgment
Logic*
Probability Learning
Problem Solving
Psychological Theory
Reading*
Semantics*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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