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Direct and Indirect Effects of Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis on the Prevention of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A Mathematical Modeling Study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  24076992     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) results from the ascending spread of microorganisms, including Chlamydia trachomatis, to the upper genital tract. Screening could improve outcomes by identifying and treating chlamydial infections before they progress to PID (direct effect) or by reducing chlamydia transmission (indirect effect).
METHODS: We developed a compartmental model that represents a hypothetical heterosexual population and explicitly incorporates progression from chlamydia to clinical PID. Chlamydia screening was introduced, with coverage increasing each year for 10 years. We estimated the separate contributions of the direct and indirect effects of screening on PID cases prevented per 100,000 women. We explored the influence of varying the time point at which clinical PID could occur and of increasing the risk of PID after repeated chlamydial infections.
RESULTS: The probability of PID at baseline was 3.1% by age 25 years. After 5 years, the intervention scenario had prevented 187 PID cases per 100,000 women and after 10 years 956 PID cases per 100,000 women. At the start of screening, most PID cases were prevented by the direct effect. The indirect effect produced a small net increase in PID cases, which was outweighed by the effect of reduced chlamydia transmission after 2.2 years. The later that progression to PID occurs, the greater the contribution of the direct effect. Increasing the risk of PID with repeated chlamydial infection increases the number of PID cases prevented by screening.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the separate roles of direct and indirect PID prevention and potential harms, which cannot be demonstrated in observational studies.
Authors:
Sereina A Herzog; Janneke C M Heijne; Pippa Scott; Christian L Althaus; Nicola Low
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)     Volume:  24     ISSN:  1531-5487     ISO Abbreviation:  Epidemiology     Publication Date:  2013 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-09-30     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9009644     Medline TA:  Epidemiology     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  854-62     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
From the Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
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