Document Detail

Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23159200     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The aim of this study was to determine the PCDD/F contents of orally consumed clays purchased from Dutch and African markets. Congener patterns were compared with those of pooled human milk samples collected in eight African countries, to investigate a possible relationship with clay consumption. From the Dutch market thirteen clay products were examined, seven of African and six of Suriname origin. From seven African countries, twenty clay products were collected. All 33 clay products were screened with a cell-based bioassay and those showing a high response were analyzed by GC/HRMS. High PCDD/F concentrations were measured in three clay products from the Dutch market, ranging from 66 to 103 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas clay products from African countries were from 24 to 75 pg TEQ g(-1). Patterns and relatively high concentrations of PCDD/Fs in human milk samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Côte d'Ivoire suggest a relationship with the consumption of contaminated clay. Frequent use of PCDD/F contaminated clay products during pregnancy may result in increased exposure of the mother and subsequently the developing fetus and new-born child. The use of these contaminated clays during pregnancy should be carefully considered or even discouraged.
Noortje M Reeuwijk; Antonia Talidda; Rainer Malisch; Alexander Kotz; Angelika Tritscher; Heidelore Fiedler; Marco J Zeilmaker; Martin Kooijman; Koen J H Wienk; Wim A Traag; Ron L A P Hoogenboom
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-11-14
Journal Detail:
Title:  Chemosphere     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1879-1298     ISO Abbreviation:  Chemosphere     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-19     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0320657     Medline TA:  Chemosphere     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA), P.O. Box 43006, 3540 AA Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
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