Document Detail


Dioxins and furans in air and deposition: a review of levels, behaviour and processes.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9770324     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
This paper is a comprehensive, critical review of the levels, behaviour and processes affecting polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) in air and deposition. Aspects of sampling, analysis and quality assurance/control are discussed initially, before a review of the PCDD/F concentrations in ambient air is presented. The general trend in sigma P4-8 CDD/F (and sigma TEQ) is: remote sites < 0.5 pg/m3 (sigma TEQ < 10 fg/m3); rural sites approximately 0.5-4 pg/m3 (sigma TEQ approximately 20-50 fg/m3); and urban/industrial sites approximately 10-100 pg/m3 (sigma TEQ approximately 100-400 fg/m3). The commonly held view that a consistent mixture of PCDD/Fs in air exists is evaluated and questioned. Issues of seasonality and short-term changes in air concentrations are also critically discussed, with respect to the possibility of seasonal emission sources to air and seasonally dependent loss processes. Data on the gas-particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs in air are reviewed; the limited database to date is believed to provide evidence for an exchangeable transfer of PCDD/Fs between these two phases. The potential importance of photolytic and radical reaction degradation processes and wet/dry deposition processes in modifying the mixture of PCDD/Fs in air is discussed. Some homologue/congener specific 'weathering' of the mixture of PCDD/Fs emitted to the atmosphere clearly occurs, but in general PCDD/Fs have 'long' atmospheric residence times, rendering them subject to long-range atmospheric transport. Data are reviewed which relate the mixture of PCDD/Fs in air to that in deposition; this leads to the conclusion that different homologue groups (which are partitioned differently between the gas and particulate phase) are transferred to the earth's surface with broadly similar efficiencies.
Authors:
R Lohmann; K C Jones
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Science of the total environment     Volume:  219     ISSN:  0048-9697     ISO Abbreviation:  Sci. Total Environ.     Publication Date:  1998 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1998-11-04     Completed Date:  1998-11-04     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0330500     Medline TA:  Sci Total Environ     Country:  NETHERLANDS    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  53-81     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Environmental Science Department, Lancaster University, UK.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Air Pollutants / analysis*
Arctic Regions
Chemistry, Physical
Furans / analysis*,  chemistry
Methods
Particle Size
Physicochemical Phenomena
Quality Control
Seasons
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin / analogs & derivatives*,  analysis,  chemistry
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants; 0/Furans; 0/polychlorodibenzo-4-dioxin; 1746-01-6/Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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