Document Detail


Digital images are data: and should be treated as such.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23026995     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The scientific community has become very concerned about inappropriate image manipulation. In journals that check figures after acceptance, 20-25% of the papers contained at least one figure that did not comply with the journal's instructions to authors. The scientific press continues to report a small, but steady stream of cases of fraudulent image manipulation. Inappropriate image manipulation taints the scientific record, damages trust within science, and degrades science's reputation with the general public. Scientists can learn from historians and photojournalists, who have provided a number of examples of attempts to alter or misrepresent the historical record. Scientists must remember that digital images are numerically sampled data that represent the state of a specific sample when examined with a specific instrument. These data should be carefully managed. Changes made to the original data need to be tracked like the protocols used for other experimental procedures. To avoid pitfalls, unexpected artifacts, and unintentional misrepresentation of the image data, a number of image processing guidelines are offered.
Authors:
Douglas W Cromey
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)     Volume:  931     ISSN:  1940-6029     ISO Abbreviation:  Methods Mol. Biol.     Publication Date:  2013  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-02     Completed Date:  2013-02-11     Revised Date:  2014-11-05    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9214969     Medline TA:  Methods Mol Biol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1-27     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Artifacts
Automatic Data Processing
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted*
Information Management
Information Storage and Retrieval
Peer Review, Research / standards
Scientific Misconduct
Software
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
CA23074/CA/NCI NIH HHS; ES006694/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS; P30 CA023074/CA/NCI NIH HHS; P30 ES006694/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS
Comments/Corrections

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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