Document Detail

Digestive challenges for vertebrate animals: microbial diversity, cardiorespiratory coupling, and dietary specialization.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20578844     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The digestive system is the interface between the supply of food for an animal and the demand for energy and nutrients to maintain the body, to grow, and to reproduce. Digestive systems are not morphologically static but rather dynamically respond to changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the diet and the level of food intake. In this article, we discuss three themes that affect the ability of an animal to alter digestive function in relation to novel substrates and changing food supply: (1) the fermentative digestion in herbivores, (2) the integration of cardiopulmonary and digestive functions, and (3) the evolution of dietary specialization. Herbivores consume, digest, and detoxify complex diets by using a wide variety of enzymes expressed by bacteria, predominantly in the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Carnivores, such as snakes that feed intermittently, sometimes process very large meals that require compensatory adjustments in blood flow, acid secretion, and regulation of acid-base homeostasis. Snakes and birds that specialize in simple diets of prey or nectar retain their ability to digest a wider selection of prey. The digestive system continues to be of interest to comparative physiologists because of its plasticity, both phenotypic and evolutionary, and because of its widespread integration with other physiological systems, including thermoregulation, circulation, ventilation, homeostasis, immunity, and reproduction.
P S Barboza; A Bennett; J-H Lignot; R I Mackie; T J McWhorter; S M Secor; N Skovgaard; M A Sundset; T Wang
Related Documents :
2036594 - Measurement of starch fermentation in the human large intestine.
1911084 - Changes in chemical composition and sensory qualities of peanut milk fermented with lac...
12712314 - The maximum attainable body size of herbivorous mammals: morphophysiological constraint...
9659434 - The starch and total sugar content of mexican fruit and vegetables.
21421954 - Supporting equitable food systems through food assistance at farmers' markets.
19860994 - Poor dietary quality of complementary foods is associated with multiple micronutrient d...
Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Physiological and biochemical zoology : PBZ     Volume:  83     ISSN:  1537-5293     ISO Abbreviation:  Physiol. Biochem. Zool.     Publication Date:    2010 Sep-Oct
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-08-20     Completed Date:  2010-12-20     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100883369     Medline TA:  Physiol Biochem Zool     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  764-74     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Biology and Wildlife, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Bacteria / genetics,  metabolism*
Biological Evolution*
Cardiovascular Physiological Processes*
Digestion / physiology*
Digestive System / microbiology*
Fermentation / physiology
Models, Biological*
Physiology, Comparative
Species Specificity
Vertebrates / physiology*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Review of positron emission tomography tracers for imaging of tumor hypoxia.
Next Document:  First aid kit for hypoxic survival: sensors and strategies.