Document Detail


Diffusion of anaesthetic gases through different polymers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8848931     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND: Improvement of working conditions and anaesthesia with closed systems includes reduction of gas leaks during anaesthesia. One source of contamination is the permeation of gases through plastic materials. The volume of gas permeating through a polymer depends on its molecular structure, the solubility and the diffusion coefficient. METHODS: We designed an experimental set-up to measure the permeation rates of nitrous oxide, enflurane and isoflurane through components of the anaesthetic ventilator made of silicone, latex, rubber and polyvinylchloride (PVC). Reservoir bags, ventilation tubes and endotracheal tubes were investigated. RESULTS: The highest permeation rates of anaesthetic gases were observed with silicone materials. Permeation through silicone exceeded that of the least permeable material by more than 10.000 times. By summarizing the permeation rates of the single items, the use of silicone increases the anaesthetic system's leakage rate by 4 ml/min, which means an increase of 18% in a modern anaesthetic ventilator and of 31% in a closed system. CONCLUSIONS: The highest permeation rates were found for nitrous oxide through silicone, although nitrous oxide has a known low solubility in plastic materials. The result demonstrates the dependency of the leakage rate on the diffusibility. The leakage of anaesthetic gases caused by silicone items does not alone lead to unacceptable pollution of operating theatres. To minimize the total leakage rates of minimal-flow-systems, however, plastic materials with low solubility and low diffusion coefficients have to be used.
Authors:
T Marx; G Fr?ba; S B?der; J Villwock; M Georgieff
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica     Volume:  40     ISSN:  0001-5172     ISO Abbreviation:  Acta Anaesthesiol Scand     Publication Date:  1996 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1996-10-23     Completed Date:  1996-10-23     Revised Date:  2010-03-24    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0370270     Medline TA:  Acta Anaesthesiol Scand     Country:  DENMARK    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  275-81     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
University of Ulm, Clinic of Anaesthesiology, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Anesthesia, Inhalation / instrumentation
Anesthetics, Inhalation*
Diffusion
Enflurane
Isoflurane
Latex
Membranes, Artificial*
Permeability
Polymers*
Polyvinyl Chloride
Rubber
Silicones
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Anesthetics, Inhalation; 0/Latex; 0/Membranes, Artificial; 0/Polymers; 0/Silicones; 13838-16-9/Enflurane; 26675-46-7/Isoflurane; 9002-86-2/Polyvinyl Chloride; 9006-04-6/Rubber

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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