Document Detail

MedLine Citation:
PMID:  2260893     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Hopelessness, helplessness, and powerlessness have been identified as phenomena of concern to psychiatric nursing practice by an American Nurses' Association (ANA) task force. These concepts, however, have not been clearly distinguished from each other. The resulting lack of clarity decreases the usefulness of nursing diagnoses in directing strategies for intervention. The purpose of this article is to differentiate the phenomena of hopelessness, helplessness, and powerlessness using Erik Erikson's "Roots of virtue" as a conceptual framework. The relationship between the frustration of early childhood tasks and later adult response patterns is discussed. Clinical examples illustrate that knowledge of childhood issues guides the formulation of therapeutic goals and interventions to address the experience of hopelessness, helplessness, and powerlessness.
B L Drew
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of psychiatric nursing     Volume:  4     ISSN:  0883-9417     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch Psychiatr Nurs     Publication Date:  1990 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1991-01-29     Completed Date:  1991-01-29     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8708534     Medline TA:  Arch Psychiatr Nurs     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  332-7     Citation Subset:  IM; N    
School of Nursing, Kent State University, Ohio.
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MeSH Terms
Child Development
Helplessness, Learned*
Internal-External Control*
Models, Psychological*
Psychiatric Nursing

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