Document Detail


Differential contributions of theobromine and caffeine on mood, psychomotor performance and blood pressure.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21839757     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The combination of theobromine and caffeine, methylxanthines found in chocolate, has previously been shown to improve mood and cognition. However, it is unknown whether these molecules act synergistically. This study tested the hypothesis that a combination of caffeine and theobromine has synergistic effects on cognition, mood and blood pressure in 24 healthy female subjects. The effects of theobromine (700mg), caffeine (120mg) or the combination of both, or placebo were tested on mood (the Bond-Lader visual analog scale), psychomotor performance (the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)) and blood pressure before and at 1, 2 and 3h after administration. Theobromine alone decreased self-reported calmness 3h after ingestion and lowered blood pressure relative to placebo 1h after ingestion. Caffeine increased self-reported alertness 1, 2 and 3h after ingestion and contentedness 1 and 2h after ingestion, and increased blood pressure relative to placebo (at 1h). The combination of caffeine+theobromine had similar effects as caffeine alone on mood, but with no effect on blood pressure. There was no treatment effect on DSST performance. Together these results suggest that theobromine and caffeine could have differential effects on mood and blood pressure. It was tentatively concluded that caffeine may have more CNS-mediated effects on alertness, while theobromine may be acting primarily via peripheral physiological changes.
Authors:
E S Mitchell; M Slettenaar; N Vd Meer; C Transler; L Jans; F Quadt; M Berry
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-8-4
Journal Detail:
Title:  Physiology & behavior     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1873-507X     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-8-15     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0151504     Medline TA:  Physiol Behav     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Affiliation:
Unilever R&D, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, Vlaardingen 3133 AT, Netherlands.
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