Document Detail


Differential sensitivity of brainstem versus cortical astrocytes to changes in pH reveals functional regional specialization of astroglia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23303924     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Astrocytes might function as brain interoceptors capable of detecting different (chemo)sensory modalities and transmitting sensory information to the relevant neural networks controlling vital functions. For example, astrocytes that reside near the ventral surface of the brainstem (central respiratory chemosensitive area) respond to physiological decreases in pH with vigorous elevations in intracellular Ca(2+) and release of ATP. ATP transmits astroglial excitation to the brainstem respiratory network and contributes to adaptive changes in lung ventilation. Here we show that in terms of pH-sensitivity, ventral brainstem astrocytes are clearly distinct from astrocytes residing in the cerebral cortex. We monitored vesicular fusion in cultured rat brainstem astrocytes using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and found that ∼35% of them respond to acidification with an increased rate of exocytosis of ATP-containing vesicular compartments. These fusion events require intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and are independent of autocrine ATP actions. In contrast, the rate of vesicular fusion in cultured cortical astrocytes is not affected by changes in pH. Compared to cortical astrocytes, ventral brainstem astrocytes display higher levels of expression of genes encoding proteins associated with ATP vesicular transport and fusion, including vesicle-associated membrane protein-3 and vesicular nucleotide transporter. These results suggest that astrocytes residing in different parts of the rat brain are functionally specialized. In contrast to cortical astrocytes, astrocytes of the brainstem chemosensitive area(s) possess signaling properties that are functionally relevant-they are able to sense changes in pH and respond to acidification with enhanced vesicular release of ATP.
Authors:
Vitaliy Kasymov; Olga Larina; Cinzia Castaldo; Nephtali Marina; Maxim Patrushev; Sergey Kasparov; Alexander V Gourine
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience     Volume:  33     ISSN:  1529-2401     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Neurosci.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-01-10     Completed Date:  2013-03-04     Revised Date:  2013-07-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8102140     Medline TA:  J Neurosci     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  435-41     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Neuroscience, Physiology, and Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adenosine Triphosphate / pharmacology
Animals
Astrocytes / physiology*
Biological Transport, Active / physiology
Brain Stem / cytology,  physiology*
Carbon Dioxide / physiology
Cells, Cultured
Cerebral Cortex / cytology,  physiology*
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Dextrans / pharmacology
Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
Exocytosis / drug effects
Female
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Immunohistochemistry
Male
Microscopy, Fluorescence
Quinacrine / pharmacology
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Synaptic Vesicles / metabolism
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
095064//Wellcome Trust; //British Heart Foundation; //Wellcome Trust
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Enzyme Inhibitors; 124-38-9/Carbon Dioxide; 56-65-5/Adenosine Triphosphate; 83-89-6/Quinacrine; 9004-54-0/Dextrans
Comments/Corrections

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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