Document Detail

Differential Myotoxic and Cytotoxic Activities of Pre-synaptic Neurotoxins from Papuan Taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) and Irian Jayan Death Adder (Acanthophis rugosus) Venoms.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23311944     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Pre-synaptic PLA(2) neurotoxins are important components of many Australasian elapid snake venoms. These toxins disrupt neurotransmitter release. Taipoxin, a pre-synaptic neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the coastal taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus), causes necrosis and muscle degeneration. The present study examined the myotoxic and cytotoxic activities of venoms from Papuan taipan (O. scutellatus) and Irian Jayan death adder (Acanthophis rugosus), and also tested their pre-synaptic neurotoxins; cannitoxin and P-EPTX-Ar1a. Based on size-exclusion chromatography analysis, cannitoxin represents 16% of O. scutellatus venom, while P-EPTX-Ar1a represents 6% of A. rugosus venom. In the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation, A. rugosus venom displayed significantly higher myotoxic activity than O. scutellatus venom as indicated by inhibition of direct twitches, and an increase in baseline tension. Both cannitoxin and P-EPTX-Ar1a, displayed marked myotoxic activity. A. rugosus venom (50-300 μg/ml) produced concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in rat skeletal muscle cell lines (L6), while 300 μg/ml of O. scutellatus venom was required to inhibit cell proliferation, following 24-hr incubation. P-EPTX-Ar1a had greater cytotoxicity than cannitoxin, inhibiting cell proliferation after 24-hr incubation in L6 cells. Lactate dehydrogenase levels were increased after 1-hr incubation with A. rugosus venom (100-250 μg/ml), O. scutellatus venom (200-250 μg/ml) and P-EPTX-Ar1a (1-2 μM), but not cannitoxin (1-2 μM), suggesting venoms/toxin generated cell necrosis. Thus, A. rugosus and O. scutellatus venoms possess different myotoxic and cytotoxic activities. The proportion of pre-synaptic neurotoxin in the venoms and PLA(2) activity of the whole venoms are unlikely to be responsible for these activities.
Janeyuth Chaisakul; Helena C Parkington; Geoffrey K Isbister; Nicki Konstantakopoulos; Wayne C Hodgson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-13
Journal Detail:
Title:  Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1742-7843     ISO Abbreviation:  Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-14     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101208422     Medline TA:  Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2013 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society.
Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Vic, Australia.
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