Document Detail

Dietary survey of Hopi Native American elementary students.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8176126     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diets of 96 Hopi fifth- and sixth-grade students on the Hopi reservation in Arizona. DESIGN: Dietary food intakes were collected using a 3-day dietary record and were analyzed with a computer software program to obtain information on the intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, 10 vitamins, and six minerals. SETTING: The survey was conducted during the health class or homeroom period in the elementary schools located on the Hopi reservation in Arizona. SUBJECTS: The survey population consisted of 96 fifth- and sixth-grade Hopi elementary students attending the five schools on the Hopi reservation. MAIN OUTCOME: Before data collection we hypothesized the average diet of Hopi elementary students did not meet dietary recommendations (eg, Dietary Goals, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), and/or National Cancer Institute recommendations). STATISTICS: The nutrient analyses and demographic data were analyzed for frequencies and percentages of responses. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated where appropriate. RESULTS: Results of the analysis revealed a mean daily dietary intake of 2,123 kcal consisting of 35% fat (84 g), 48% carbohydrate (261 g; 38% from sugar), and 17% protein (89 g), with 27 g saturated fat, 442 mg cholesterol, 11 g fiber, and 2,477 mg sodium. At least 97% or 100% of the RDA was met for all analyzed vitamins and minerals except for vitamin D (146 IU; 37% RDA), calcium (874 mg; 82% RDA), and zinc (12 mg; 94% RDA). CONCLUSIONS: Given the health problems relatively new to Native Americans, such as diabetes, obesity, liver cirrhosis, hypertension, fetal alcohol syndrome, and increasing rates of heart disease and cancer, dietary modification may benefit them in their adult life. Modifications to meet current recommended dietary goals would include reducing fat to below 30% of energy; cholesterol to less than 250 mg; sodium to lower levels but not below 500 mg/day; and decreasing refined sugars. Carbohydrates would be increased to at least 58% energy; fiber to 20 to 30 g; and vitamin D, calcium, and, possibly, zinc to RDA levels.
A C Brown; B Brenton
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the American Dietetic Association     Volume:  94     ISSN:  0002-8223     ISO Abbreviation:  J Am Diet Assoc     Publication Date:  1994 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1994-06-08     Completed Date:  1994-06-08     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7503061     Medline TA:  J Am Diet Assoc     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  517-22     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Health, Physical Education and Nutrition, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff 86011.
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MeSH Terms
Diet Records
Diet Surveys*
Indians, North American*
Comment In:
J Am Diet Assoc. 1994 Nov;94(11):1253   [PMID:  7963163 ]

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