Document Detail


Dietary sodium chloride and potassium have effects on the pathophysiology of hypertension in humans and animals.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9022555     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
A diet high in NaCl can raise blood pressure in susceptible people and animals, probably by similar mechanisms. The possibly harmful effects of a high-NaCl diet are not unexpected because both prehistoric humans and mammals evolved in a low-NaCl environment. Evolutionary forces molded mammals to adapt well to a low sodium intake; modern high NaCl intakes go against this adaptation. A high-NaCl diet can cause premature mortality by raising blood pressure in susceptible people. We have new evidence that in hypertension, a high-NaCl diet can cause a great increase in mortality even though it does not cause a further blood pressure rise, partially because of multiple small cerebral infarcts. Recent evidence also indicates that a high-potassium diet reduces the rise of blood pressure caused by a high-NaCl diet, whereas a low-normal potassium intake encourages an NaCl-induced blood pressure rise. The combination of a tendency by the kidneys to retain NaCl together with a high NaCl intake can produce a blood pressure rise. This combination tends to cause NaCl retention, which can trigger blood pressure rises in susceptible humans and animals. Such blood pressure rises can augment renal NaCl excretion and regain the previous NaCl balance. In Dahl salt-sensitive rats several renal abnormalities encourage sodium retention. By analogy, renal "abnormalities" are probably present in people susceptible to hypertension.
Authors:
L Tobian
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of clinical nutrition     Volume:  65     ISSN:  0002-9165     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Clin. Nutr.     Publication Date:  1997 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-02-26     Completed Date:  1997-02-26     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376027     Medline TA:  Am J Clin Nutr     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  606S-611S     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Minnesota Hospital, Minneapolis 55455, USA. tobia001@maroon.tc.umn.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Cerebral Infarction / etiology,  mortality
Cerebrovascular Disorders / etiology,  mortality
Humans
Hypertension / etiology*,  mortality,  physiopathology
Kidney / physiopathology
Potassium, Dietary / administration & dosage,  pharmacology*
Signal Transduction
Sodium Chloride, Dietary / administration & dosage,  adverse effects*
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
HL 17871/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Potassium, Dietary; 0/Sodium Chloride, Dietary

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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