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Dietary Vitamin D Inadequacy Accelerates Calcification and Osteoblast-Like Cell Formation in the Vascular System of LDL Receptor Knockout and Wild-Type Mice.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  24647396     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Vitamin D insufficiency is highly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We have demonstrated enhanced vascular calcification in LDL receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) mice fed a diet low in vitamin D. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a diet low in vitamin D on vascular calcification in wild-type (WT) mice lacking atherosclerotic plaques and the effects of a persistent and discontinuous vitamin D insufficiency on atherosclerotic plaque composition in LDLR(-/-) mice. The study was performed with 4-wk-old male WT and LDLR(-/-) mice that were fed a normal calcium/phosphate Western diet (210 g/kg fat, 1.5 g/kg cholesterol) containing either adequate [1000 IU/kg (+D)] or low [50 IU/kg (-D)] amounts of vitamin D3 for 16 wk. Four groups of LDLR(-/-) mice received 1 of the 2 diets for additional 16 wk (total 32 wk) and were compared with mice fed the diets for only 16 wk. WT and LDLR(-/-) mice that were fed the -D diet for 16 wk tended to develop more calcified spots in the aortic valve than mice fed the +D diet (+50% and +56%, respectively; P < 0.10). In LDLR(-/-) mice, the extent of calcification increased from week 16 to week 32 and was higher in the -D than in the +D group (P < 0.05). The calcification, owing to the -D diet, was accompanied by highly expressed osteoblast differentiation factors, indicating a transdifferentiation of vascular cells to osteoblast-like cells. Feeding the +D diet subsequent to the -D diet reduced the vascular calcification (P < 0.05). LDLR(-/-) mice fed the -D diet for 32 wk had higher plaque lipid depositions (+48%, P < 0.05) and a higher expression of cluster of differentiation 68 (+31%, P < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor α (+134%, P < 0.001) than the +D group. Collectively, the findings imply low vitamin D status as a causal factor for vascular calcification and atherosclerosis.
Authors:
Nadine Schmidt; Corinna Brandsch; Alexandra Schutkowski; Frank Hirche; Gabriele I Stangl
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2014-3-19
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of nutrition     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1541-6100     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2014 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-3-20     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0404243     Medline TA:  J Nutr     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
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