Document Detail

Dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among children and adolescents in the United States.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20869486     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to identify top dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among 2- to 18-year-olds in the United States.
METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study, were used to examine food sources (percentage contribution and mean intake with standard errors) of total energy (data from 2005-2006) and energy from solid fats and added sugars (data from 2003-2004). Differences were investigated by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and family income, and the consumption of empty calories-defined as the sum of energy from solid fats and added sugars-was compared with the corresponding discretionary calorie allowance.
RESULTS: The top sources of energy for 2- to 18-year-olds were grain desserts (138 kcal/day), pizza (136 kcal/day), and soda (118 kcal/day). Sugar-sweetened beverages (soda and fruit drinks combined) provided 173 kcal/day. Major contributors varied by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and income. Nearly 40% of total energy consumed (798 of 2,027 kcal/day) by 2- to 18-year-olds were in the form of empty calories (433 kcal from solid fat and 365 kcal from added sugars). Consumption of empty calories far exceeded the corresponding discretionary calorie allowance for all sex-age groups (which range from 8% to 20%). Half of empty calories came from six foods: soda, fruit drinks, dairy desserts, grain desserts, pizza, and whole milk.
CONCLUSIONS: There is an overlap between the major sources of energy and empty calories: soda, grain desserts, pizza, and whole milk. The landscape of choices available to children and adolescents must change to provide fewer unhealthy foods and more healthy foods with less energy. Identifying top sources of energy and empty calories can provide targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment. However, product reformulation alone is not sufficient-the flow of empty calories into the food supply must be reduced.
Jill Reedy; Susan M Krebs-Smith
Related Documents :
14702016 - Toddlers' transition to table foods: impact on nutrient intakes and food patterns.
15321806 - Energy intake and appetite are related to antral area in healthy young and older subjects.
3432196 - Metabolizable energy content of pearl millet [pennisetum americanum (l.) leeke]
6437946 - Energy requirements of captive cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus oedipus).
16568756 - Persistent organic pollutants in the equatorial atmosphere over the open indian ocean.
10196046 - Problem solving and functional design features: experiments on cotton-top tamarins, sag...
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the American Dietetic Association     Volume:  110     ISSN:  1878-3570     ISO Abbreviation:  J Am Diet Assoc     Publication Date:  2010 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-09-27     Completed Date:  2010-10-06     Revised Date:  2013-07-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7503061     Medline TA:  J Am Diet Assoc     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1477-84     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, Applied Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Age Distribution
Beverages / adverse effects,  statistics & numerical data
Carbonated Beverages / adverse effects,  statistics & numerical data
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / physiology*
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet / statistics & numerical data*
Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*,  adverse effects
Dietary Sucrose / administration & dosage*,  adverse effects
Energy Intake*
Ethnic Groups
Food / classification
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritive Value
Obesity / epidemiology,  etiology
Sex Distribution
United States
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Dietary Fats; 0/Dietary Sucrose
Comment In:
J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Feb;111(2):222-3; author reply 223-4   [PMID:  21272694 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Development and Validation of a Comprehensive Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire that In...
Next Document:  Caregiver- vs Infant-Oriented Feeding: A Model of Infant-Feeding Strategies among Special Supplement...