Document Detail

Diesel emissions significantly influence composition and mutagenicity of ambient particles: a case study in São Paulo, Brazil.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15721877     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
In 2003, a bus strike paralyzed the fleet of buses in Sao Paulo, Brazil during 3 days, from 6 to 8 of April, the complete interruption of services being achieved on the 7th. We evaluated the effect of the absence of this source of pollution on the composition, mutagenicity, and toxicity of the fine particulate material collected during this period. Particles were sampled in glass fiber filters on days 7 and 15 of April of 2003 (strike and nonstrike days, respectively), using a high-volume sampler. Trace element determinations (As, Br, Co, Cl, Fe, La, Mn, Sb, Sc, and Th) of particulate material samples were carried out by neutron activation analysis. Sulfur determination was done by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The ratio between nonstrike/strike concentrations of hydrocarbons associated with automotive emissions (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes; BTEX) was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Mutagenesis of testing solutions was determined by means of the Tradescantia micronucleus assay in early tetrads of Tradescantia pallida. The inhibition of mitosis of the cells of the primary meristema of the root tips of Allium cepa was used as an index of the toxicity. Fine particle trace element contents were lower during the strike. The concentrations of sulfur and BTEX were 50% and 39.3% lower, respectively, on the strike day. A significant (P=0.038) reduction of micronuclei induced by fine particles sampled during the strike was observed. No effect of the strike on toxicity was detected. These results indicate that a program aiming to reduce emissions of the bus fleet in our town may impact positively the air quality by reducing the mutagenic potential of ambient particles.
R Carvalho-Oliveira; R M K Pozo; D J A Lobo; A J F C Lichtenfels; H A Martins-Junior; J O W V Bustilho; M Saiki; I M Sato; P H N Saldiva
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental research     Volume:  98     ISSN:  0013-9351     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Res.     Publication Date:  2005 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-02-21     Completed Date:  2005-04-28     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0147621     Medline TA:  Environ Res     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
Laboratory of Experimental Air Pollution, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo 455, CEP 01246-903 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
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MeSH Terms
Air Pollutants / analysis,  toxicity*
Benzene Derivatives / analysis
Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Linear Models
Micronucleus Tests
Mutagenicity Tests
Neutron Activation Analysis
Onions / cytology,  drug effects
Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission
Sulfur / analysis
Trace Elements / analysis
Tradescantia / drug effects,  genetics
Vehicle Emissions / analysis,  toxicity*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants; 0/Benzene Derivatives; 0/Trace Elements; 0/Vehicle Emissions; 7704-34-9/Sulfur

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