Document Detail

Did the 1997 balanced budget act reduce use of physical and occupational therapy services?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18452725     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether use of physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) services decreased after the passage of the 1997 Balanced Budget Act (BBA).
DESIGN: Data from the nationally representative Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) were merged with Medicare claims data. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of data from 1995 (n=7978), 1999 (n=7863), and 2001 (n=7973). All analyses used MCBS sampling weights to provide estimates that can be generalized to the Medicare population with 5 common conditions.
SETTINGS: Skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), home health agencies, inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs), and outpatient rehabilitation settings.
PARTICIPANTS: Medicare beneficiaries who participated in the MCBS survey in each of the study years and had 1 or more of the following conditions: acute stroke, acute myocardial infarction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis or degenerative joint disease, or mobility problems.
INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentage of persons meeting our inclusion criteria who received PT or OT in each setting, and total units of PT and OT received in each setting.
RESULTS: Multivariable logistic regression revealed no statistically significant differences in the proportion of people who met our inclusion criteria who used PT or OT from home health agencies across the 3 time points. For SNFs, an increase in the odds of receiving PT was statistically significant from 1995 to 1999 (odds ratio [OR]=1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-1.69) and 1995 to 2001 (OR=1.69; 95% CI, 1.39-2.05). For IRF and outpatient settings, a significant increase was observed between 1995 and 2001 (OR=1.71, OR=1.27, respectively). For OT, a statistically significant increase was observed for IRF and outpatient rehabilitation settings from 1995 to 2001. For SNF, the increase was statistically significant from 1995 to 1999 and 1995 to 2001. Mean total PT and OT units received also increased across all settings from 1995 to 2001 except for IRFs.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite BBA mandates restricting postacute care expenditures, this nationally representative study showed no decreases in the percentage of Medicare beneficiaries with 5 common diagnoses receiving PT and/or OT across all settings and no decreases in units of PT and/or OT services received between 1995 and 2001 except for those in IRFs. This study suggests that the delivery of PT and OT services did not decline among persons with conditions for which rehabilitation services are often clinically indicated.
Nancy K Latham; Alan M Jette; Long H Ngo; Jane Soukup; Lisa I Iezzoni
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation     Volume:  89     ISSN:  1532-821X     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch Phys Med Rehabil     Publication Date:  2008 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-05-02     Completed Date:  2008-06-03     Revised Date:  2013-04-08    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  2985158R     Medline TA:  Arch Phys Med Rehabil     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  807-14     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Health and Disability Research Institute, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA 02118-2639, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Cross-Sectional Studies
Financing, Government / trends*
Logistic Models
Medicare / economics*
Occupational Health Services / utilization*
Physical Therapy Modalities / utilization*
United States
Grant Support

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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