Document Detail


Diagnostic tools for hypertension and salt sensitivity testing.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23197156     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: One-third of the world's population has hypertension and it is responsible for almost 50% of deaths from stroke or coronary heart disease. These statistics do not distinguish salt-sensitive from salt-resistant hypertension or include normotensives who are salt-sensitive even though salt sensitivity, independent of blood pressure, is a risk factor for cardiovascular and other diseases, including cancer. This review describes new personalized diagnostic tools for salt sensitivity.
RECENT FINDINGS: The relationship between salt intake and cardiovascular risk is not linear, but rather fits a J-shaped curve relationship. Thus, a low-salt diet may not be beneficial to everyone and may paradoxically increase blood pressure in some individuals. Current surrogate markers of salt sensitivity are not adequately sensitive or specific. Tests in the urine that could be surrogate markers of salt sensitivity with a quick turn-around time include renal proximal tubule cells, exosomes, and microRNA shed in the urine.
SUMMARY: Accurate testing of salt sensitivity is not only laborious but also expensive, and with low patient compliance. Patients who have normal blood pressure but are salt-sensitive cannot be diagnosed in an office setting and there are no laboratory tests for salt sensitivity. Urinary surrogate markers for salt sensitivity are being developed.
Authors:
Robin A Felder; Marquitta J White; Scott M Williams; Pedro A Jose
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension     Volume:  22     ISSN:  1473-6543     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-12-04     Completed Date:  2013-06-03     Revised Date:  2013-09-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9303753     Medline TA:  Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  65-76     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Pathology, The University of Virginia, Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Biological Markers
Blood Pressure / drug effects*,  genetics
Exosomes
G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4 / genetics
Genetic Testing*
Humans
Hypertension / diagnosis*,  genetics*
Kidney Tubules, Proximal / cytology
Sodium Chloride, Dietary / adverse effects*
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
DK039308/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS; DK090918/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS; HL023081/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS; HL068686/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS; HL074940/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS; HL092196/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS; P01 HL068686/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS; P01 HL074940/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS; R01 DK039308/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS; R01 HL023081/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS; R01 HL092196/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS; R37 HL023081/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biological Markers; 0/Sodium Chloride, Dietary; EC 2.7.11.16/G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4; EC 2.7.11.16/GRK4 protein, human
Comments/Corrections

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