Document Detail

Developmental plasticity in respiratory control.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12486025     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Development of the mammalian respiratory control system begins early in gestation and does not achieve mature form until weeks or months after birth. A relatively long gestation and period of postnatal maturation allows for prolonged pre- and postnatal interactions with the environment, including experiences such as episodic or chronic hypoxia, hyperoxia, and drug or toxin exposures. Developmental plasticity occurs when such experiences, during critical periods of maturation, result in long-term alterations in the structure or function of the respiratory control neural network. A critical period is a time window during development devoted to structural and/or functional shaping of the neural systems subserving respiratory control. Experience during the critical period can disrupt and alter developmental trajectory, whereas the same experience before or after has little or no effect. One of the clearest examples to date is blunting of the adult ventilatory response to acute hypoxia challenge by early postnatal hyperoxia exposure in the newborn. Developmental plasticity in neural respiratory control development can occur at multiple sites during formation of brain stem neuronal networks and chemoafferent pathways, at multiple times during development, by multiple mechanisms. Past concepts of respiratory control system maturation as rigidly predetermined by a genetic blueprint have now yielded to a different view in which extremely complex interactions between genes, transcriptional factors, growth factors, and other gene products shape the respiratory control system, and experience plays a key role in guiding normal respiratory control development. Early-life experiences may also lead to maladaptive changes in respiratory control. Pathological conditions as well as normal phenotypic diversity in mature respiratory control may have their roots, at least in part, in developmental plasticity.
John L Carroll
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)     Volume:  94     ISSN:  8750-7587     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Appl. Physiol.     Publication Date:  2003 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2002-12-17     Completed Date:  2003-06-20     Revised Date:  2013-09-26    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8502536     Medline TA:  J Appl Physiol (1985)     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  375-89     Citation Subset:  IM    
Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Arkansas Children's Hospital, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock 72202, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Aging / physiology*
Animals, Newborn / physiology
Fetus / physiology
Infant, Newborn
Nervous System / embryology,  growth & development
Neuronal Plasticity / physiology*
Respiratory Muscles / embryology*,  innervation*
Respiratory System / embryology*,  innervation*

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