Document Detail

Developmental changes in sequential activation of laryngeal abductor muscle and diaphragm in infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  1447088     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
In animals and human adults, upper airway muscle activity usually precedes inspiratory diaphragm activity. We examined the interaction of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA), which abducts the larynx, and the diaphragm (DIA) in the control of airflow in newborn infants to assess the effect of maturation on respiratory muscle sequence. We recorded tidal volume, airflow, and DIA and PCA electromyograms (EMG) in 12 full-term, 14 premature, and 10 premature infants with apnea treated with aminophylline. In most breaths, onset of PCA EMG activity preceded onset of DIA EMG activity (lead breaths). In all subjects, we also observed breaths (range 6-61%) in which PCA EMG onset followed DIA EMG onset (lag breaths). DIA neural inspiratory duration and the neuromechanical delay between DIA EMG onset and inspiratory flow were longer in lag than in lead breaths (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). The frequency of lag breaths was greater in the premature infants [33 +/- 4% (SE)] than in either the full-term infants (21 +/- 3%, P < 0.03) or the premature infants with apnea treated with aminophylline (16 +/- 2%, P < 0.01). We conclude that the expected sequence of onset of PCA and DIA EMG activity is frequently disrupted in newborn infants. Both maturation and respiratory stimulation with aminophylline improve the coordination of the PCA and DIA.
E C Eichenwald; R G Howell; P C Kosch; R A Ungarelli; J Lindsey; R Stark
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)     Volume:  73     ISSN:  8750-7587     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Appl. Physiol.     Publication Date:  1992 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1992-12-29     Completed Date:  1992-12-29     Revised Date:  2013-09-26    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8502536     Medline TA:  J Appl Physiol (1985)     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1425-31     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
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MeSH Terms
Apnea / physiopathology
Diaphragm / growth & development
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Laryngeal Muscles / growth & development*
Muscle Development*
Respiratory Mechanics / physiology
Respiratory Muscles / growth & development*
Sleep / physiology
Theophylline / pharmacokinetics
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:

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