Document Detail

Development of a xylazine constant rate infusion with or without butorphanol for standing sedation of horses.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22103355     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Objective  To elaborate constant rate infusion (CRI) protocols for xylazine (X) and xylazine/butorphanol (XB) which will result in constant sedation and steady xylazine plasma concentrations. Study design  Blinded randomized experimental study. Animals  Ten adult research horses. Methods  Part I: After normal height of head above ground (HHAG = 100%) was determined, a loading dose of xylazine (1 mg kg(-1) ) with butorphanol (XB: 18 μg kg(-1) ) or saline (X: equal volume) was given slowly intravenously (IV). Immediately afterwards, a CRI of butorphanol (XB: 25 μg kg(-1)  hour(-1) ) or saline (X) was administered for 2 hours. The HHAG was used as a marker of depth of sedation. Sedation was maintained for 2 hours by additional boluses of xylazine (0.3 mg kg(-1) ) whenever HHAG >50%. The dose of xylazine (mg kg(-1)  hour(-1) ) required to maintain sedation was calculated for both groups. Part II: After the initial loading dose, the calculated xylazine infusion rates were administered in parallel to butorphanol (XB) or saline (X) and sedation evaluated. Xylazine plasma concentrations were measured by HPLC-MS-MS at time points 0, 5, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Data were analyzed using paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test and a 2-way anova for repeated measures (p < 0.05). Results  There was no significant difference in xylazine requirements (X: 0.69, XB: 0.65 mg kg(-1) hour(-1) ) between groups. With treatment X, a CRI leading to prolonged sedation was developed. With XB, five horses (part I: two, part II: three) fell down and during part II four horses appeared insufficiently sedated. Xylazine plasma concentrations were constant after 45 minutes in both groups. Conclusion  Xylazine bolus, followed by CRI, provided constant sedation. Additional butorphanol was ineffective in reducing xylazine requirements and increased ataxia and apparent early recovery from sedation in unstimulated horses. Clinical relevance  Data were obtained on unstimulated healthy horses and extrapolation to clinical conditions requires caution.
Simone K Ringer; Karine G Portier; Isabelle Fourel; Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-11-22
Journal Detail:
Title:  Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1467-2995     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-11-22     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100956422     Medline TA:  Vet Anaesth Analg     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2011 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.
Section of Anaesthesiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Anaesthesiology, Equine department, VetAgro Sup (Veterinary Campus of Lyon), University of Lyon, Marcy L'Etoile, France VetAgro Sup UMR 1233 INRA/DGER, University of Lyon, Marcy L'Etoile, France.
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