Document Detail

Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  3397865     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.
D Watson; L A Clark; A Tellegen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of personality and social psychology     Volume:  54     ISSN:  0022-3514     ISO Abbreviation:  J Pers Soc Psychol     Publication Date:  1988 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1988-09-01     Completed Date:  1988-09-01     Revised Date:  2009-11-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0014171     Medline TA:  J Pers Soc Psychol     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1063-70     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Psychology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275.
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MeSH Terms
Mood Disorders / psychology*
Psychological Tests*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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