Document Detail

Development of a questionnaire and a database for assessing dietary d-limonene intake.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12633519     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: Increasing recognition of the potential importance of phytochemicals in the aetiology of cancer and heart diseases has highlighted the need for methods to measure individual phytochemical consumption that are sufficiently simple to be used in large epidemiological studies and whose reproducibility and accuracy have been quantified. d-Limonene is a natural component of a variety of foods and beverages and is found mainly in citrus fruits. However, d-limonene is not assessed by any nationally available analysis database. DESIGN: We designed our study to assess the d-limonene content of different citrus juices and beverages and to develop a dietary assessment instrument to measure consumption of citrus foods (fruit, juice and peel) and d-limonene intake and test it for reliability. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 120 citrus juice samples were analysed and used to develop the preliminary d-limonene database. A self-administered citrus food-frequency questionnaire was developed and administered twice to participants, separated by a 2-month interval. The questionnaire was tested for reproducibility of estimates of citrus food consumption and d-limonene intake among 120 participants. RESULTS: Correlation coefficients between the two administrations of the questionnaire ranged from 0.50 for citrus peel use to 0.82 for orange juice. Mean intakes (range) of d-limonene from citrus juices among consumers were 13.0 (0.24-141.9) mg day-1 and 13.2 (0.07-83.9) mg day-1 (r = 0.60, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The citrus frequency questionnaire developed in this study provided highly reproducible estimates of citrus foods, citrus peel and d-limonene intakes. This instrument may be a useful tool in studies of the associations between citrus peel use, d-limonene intake and risk for chronic disease.
Iman A Hakim; Vern Hartz; Ellen Graver; Robin Whitacre; David Alberts
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Public health nutrition     Volume:  5     ISSN:  1368-9800     ISO Abbreviation:  Public Health Nutr     Publication Date:  2002 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-03-13     Completed Date:  2003-05-13     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9808463     Medline TA:  Public Health Nutr     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  939-45     Citation Subset:  IM    
Arizona Cancer Center and College of Public Health, The University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson 85724, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Databases, Factual
Diet Surveys
Food Analysis / methods*
Middle Aged
Reproducibility of Results
Terpenes / administration & dosage,  analysis*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Cyclohexenes; 0/Terpenes; 138-86-3/limonene

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