Document Detail

Development of proximal arm muscle control during reaching in young infants: from variation to selection.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19945169     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Reaching movements are initiated by activity of the prime mover, i.e. the first activated arm muscle. We aimed to investigate the relationship between prime mover activity and kinematics of reaching in typically developing (TD) infants in supine and sitting position. Fourteen infants were assessed at 4 and 6 months during reaching in supine and supported sitting. Kinematics and EMG-activity of deltoid, pectoralis major, biceps (BB) and triceps brachii were recorded. Kinematic analysis focused on number of movement units (MUs) and transport MU (MU with longest duration). Prime mover use was variable, but at 6 months a dominance of BB emerged in both testing conditions. Kinematics were also variable, but with increasing age the number of MU decreased and the relative proportion of the transport MU increased. BB as prime mover at 6 months was related to a larger transport MU. Conclusion: Between 4 and 6 months BB prime mover dominance emerges which is related to relatively efficient reaching characteristics.
Hanneke Bakker; Victorine B de Graaf-Peters; Leo A van Eykern; Bert Otten; Mijna Hadders-Algra
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article     Date:  2009-11-27
Journal Detail:
Title:  Infant behavior & development     Volume:  33     ISSN:  1934-8800     ISO Abbreviation:  Infant Behav Dev     Publication Date:  2010 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-02-09     Completed Date:  2010-04-29     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7806016     Medline TA:  Infant Behav Dev     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  30-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Department Paediatrics - Developmental Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Adaptation, Physiological
Arm / physiology*
Child Development / physiology*
Longitudinal Studies
Motor Activity / physiology*
Motor Skills / physiology*
Muscle Development
Muscle, Skeletal / growth & development,  physiology*
Reference Values
Supine Position

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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