Document Detail

Development of a piglet model of status epilepticus: preliminary results.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8427425     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Ventilation frequently is impaired during prolonged clinical seizures and their treatment. In a pilot study, respiratory, metabolic, and hemodynamic variables were studied during induced seizures in a lightly anesthetized, spontaneously breathing piglet model. PARTICIPANTS: Weanling, mixed-breed domestic piglets. INTERVENTIONS: Piglets were instrumented with a tracheostomy, arterial catheter, and epidural electrodes. Conditions included hyperoxia, normothermia, and ketamine maintenance infusion throughout recordings. After baseline recordings, 2 mg/kg IV bicuculline was administered. For further model validation, piglets were randomized to infusions of diazepam (three), lorazepam (two), or saline (control; five) groups after ten minutes of untreated seizures. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Integrated tidal volume, respiratory rate, PaCO2, pH, arterial pressure, rectal temperature, heart rate, and bipolar EEG waveforms were recorded and compared at intervals for 60 minutes. Vigorous tonic-clonic seizures occurred in all piglets, confirmed by sudden synchronization and large-amplitude EEG waveforms. Increases in heart rate, arterial pressure, tidal volume, respiratory rate, PaCO2, minute ventilation, and base deficit occurred in all piglets during seizures as compared with baseline. Five minutes after bicuculline was administered, increases in minute ventilation (4.5 +/- 0.4 L/min at baseline to 13 +/- 2.1 L/min) were accounted for by increases in both tidal volume and respiratory rate. More abrupt decreases in respiratory rate were observed in anticonvulsant-treated piglets as compared with controls. The duration of continuous seizure activity (12 +/- 1.0 minutes versus 21 +/- 3.3 minutes; P < .05) was reduced in anticonvulsant-treated piglets. CONCLUSION: Significant increases in ventilation occur during generalized seizures in tracheostomized piglets given bicuculline. Diazepam and lorazepam infusions ameliorate seizure activity and suppress increases in respiratory rate but not minute ventilation as compared with controls. Problems with this model included baseline variability, temperature instability, and that direct respiratory stimulation from the convulsant agent may have occurred.
T E Terndrup; A M Paskanik; W E Fordyce; R K Kanter
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Annals of emergency medicine     Volume:  22     ISSN:  0196-0644     ISO Abbreviation:  Ann Emerg Med     Publication Date:  1993 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1993-03-04     Completed Date:  1993-03-04     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8002646     Medline TA:  Ann Emerg Med     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  164-70     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Emergency Medicine, State University of New York Health Science Center, Syracuse.
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MeSH Terms
Diazepam / pharmacology,  therapeutic use
Lorazepam / pharmacology,  therapeutic use
Models, Biological*
Pilot Projects
Respiration* / drug effects
Status Epilepticus / chemically induced,  drug therapy,  physiopathology*
Reg. No./Substance:
439-14-5/Diazepam; 485-49-4/Bicuculline; 846-49-1/Lorazepam

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