Document Detail

Development of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15054644     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Premature infants undergo intensive growth during the postnatal period. Adequate mineralization is dependent on sufficient intake of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). However, Ca and P supplementation can be associated with some risks, for example development of nephrocalcinosis. We investigated pathophysiological risk factors in premature very low birth weight (VLBW) infants associated with the development of nephrocalcinosis. From June 1994 to September 1995 all preterm neonates with a birth weight below 1,500 g were screened prospectively. At regular intervals of 2 weeks, ultrasonography (US) of the kidneys was performed and parameters of mineral metabolism were assessed in blood and spot urine samples. For analysis, premature infants with nephrocalcinosis (group N) were compared with infants without nephrocalcinosis (group R) and with a retrospectively pair-matched subgroup of premature infants without nephrocalcinosis (control group C) taken from the same study. Nephrocalcinosis was detected in 20 of 114 preterm neonates (group N, 17.5%). Of these 20 infants with nephrocalcinosis, 16 presented with a tendency towards systemic acidosis (pH<7.25) on day 2-7, compared with only 4 of 20 premature infants of the control group. Premature infants of group N had a lower serum P at 2 weeks of life and 5 (versus 0 patients of the control group C) had transient hypophosphatemia (serum P<1.6 mmol/l). Moreover, the Ca/creatinine ratio in spot urine specimens tended to be higher (P<0.1) in patients developing nephrocalcinosis. There were no significant differences in the duration of ventilation, the length of stay in the intensive care unit, and duration and frequency of furosemide and steroid treatment between the groups N and C. VLBW premature infants developing nephrocalcinosis frequently presented with slightly impaired acid-base homoeostasis within the 1st week, followed by signs of impaired mineralization (and immature or impaired renal function) within 2 weeks. In VLBW premature infants, close observation of acid-base status and regular analysis of spot urine specimens (Ca, P, creatinine) during the first weeks of life may help to identify those premature infants at risk for nephrocalcinosis.
Guido Hein; Detlef Richter; Friedrich Manz; Dieter Weitzel; Hermann Kalhoff
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2004-03-31
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)     Volume:  19     ISSN:  0931-041X     ISO Abbreviation:  Pediatr. Nephrol.     Publication Date:  2004 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-05-10     Completed Date:  2004-12-15     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8708728     Medline TA:  Pediatr Nephrol     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  616-20     Citation Subset:  IM    
Pediatric Clinic, Beurhausstrasse 40, 44137 Dortmund, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Acidosis, Renal Tubular / epidemiology
Calcium / blood,  urine
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature, Diseases / epidemiology*,  physiopathology*
Infant, Very Low Birth Weight*
Kidney / ultrasonography
Nephrocalcinosis / epidemiology*,  physiopathology*,  ultrasonography
Phosphorus / blood,  urine
Prospective Studies
Retrospective Studies
Risk Factors
Reg. No./Substance:
7440-70-2/Calcium; 7723-14-0/Phosphorus

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