Document Detail


Development of livestock production in the tropics: farm and farmers' perspectives.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  24673769     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Because of an increasing demand for animal-source foods, an increasing desire to reduce poverty and an increasing need to reduce the environmental impact of livestock production, tropical farming systems with livestock must increase their productivity. An important share of the global human and livestock populations are found within smallholder mixed-crop-livestock systems, which should, therefore, contribute significantly towards this increase in livestock production. The present paper argues that increased livestock production in smallholder mixed-crop-livestock systems faces many constraints at the level of the farm and the value chain. The present paper aims to describe and explain the impact of increased production from the farm and farmers' perspective, in order to understand the constraints for increased livestock production. A framework is presented that links farming systems to livestock value chains. It is concluded that farming systems that pass from subsistence to commercial livestock production will: (1) shift from rural to urban markets; (2) become part of a different value chain (with lower prices, higher demands for product quality and increased competition from peri-urban producers and imports); and (3) have to face changes in within-farm mechanisms and crop-livestock relationships. A model study showed that feed limitation, which is common in tropical farming systems with livestock, implies that maximum herd output is achieved with small herd sizes, leaving low-quality feeds unutilised. Maximal herd output is not achieved at maximal individual animal output. Having more animals than required for optimal production - which is often the case as a larger herd size supports non-production functions of livestock, such as manure production, draught, traction and capital storage - goes at the expense of animal-source food output. Improving low-quality feeds by treatment allows keeping more animals while maintaining the same level of production. Ruminant methane emission per kg of milk produced is mainly determined by the level of milk production per cow. Part of the methane emissions, however, should be attributed to the non-production functions of ruminants. It was concluded that understanding the farm and farmers' perceptions of increased production helps with the understanding of productivity increase constraints and adds information to that reported in the literature at the level of technology, markets and institutions.
Authors:
S J Oosting; H M J Udo; T C Viets
Related Documents :
23530169 - Prevalence and reasons for introducing infants early to solid foods: variations by milk...
23433469 - Evaluating the effect of measurement error when using one or two 24 h dietary recalls t...
23674809 - White potatoes, human health, and dietary guidance.
24762429 - Dietary intake at competition in elite olympic combat sports.
21179509 - Projecting global land-use change and its effect on ecosystem service provision and bio...
23412839 - Rapid detection of norovirus in naturally contaminated food: foodborne gastroenteritis ...
24924329 - Increased distractability in capons: an adult parallel to androgen-induced effects in t...
18761619 - Birth of a biome: insights into the assembly and maintenance of the australian arid zon...
1877689 - Intravenous nutrient-induced satiety depends on feeding-related gut signals.
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2014-3-27
Journal Detail:
Title:  Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1751-732X     ISO Abbreviation:  Animal     Publication Date:  2014 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-3-28     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101303270     Medline TA:  Animal     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  1-11     Citation Subset:  -    
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


Previous Document:  Feeling well and talking about sex: psycho-social predictors of sexual functioning after cancer.
Next Document:  Serum carotenoid levels and lung cancer mortality risk in US adults.