Document Detail

Developing a management plan for oral anticoagulant reversal.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23640529     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
PURPOSE: To describe a process for prompt evaluation and management- including reversal of the effects of warfarin and target-specific oral anticoagulants-of patients with or at high risk for bleeding during oral anticoagulant therapy or when such therapy is interrupted for an urgent invasive procedure or surgery.
SUMMARY: The use of pharmacologic interventions for anticoagulant reversal may depend on the measured level of anticoagulation, time since the last anticoagulant dose, target level of coagulation, reliability of laboratory tests of coagulation, severity of or risk for bleeding, the agents' mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the reversal agent. The patient's age, weight, renal function, comorbid conditions, and other drug therapy, as well as the risk for thromboembolism and other adverse effects of the reversal therapies, also enter into therapeutic decisions. Hemodialysis may be used to remove the direct thrombin (factor IIa) inhibitor dabigatran and reverse its anticoagulant effects. Limited experience with clotting factor concentrates suggests that activated prothrombin complex concentrate may be useful for reversing the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran. The activity of oral factor Xa inhibitors (i.e., rivaroxaban and apixaban) is higher up the common pathway of the coagulation cascade and thus may be easier to reverse than that of direct thrombin inhibitors. Additional clinical experience is needed to identify the optimal reversal agents, dosage, and impact on thrombosis or bleeding outcomes for both classes of agents.
CONCLUSION: A comprehensive plan individualized to each agent should be developed to promptly reverse the effects of oral anticoagulants and optimize outcomes in patients with bleeding or an urgent need for surgery.
William E Dager
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists     Volume:  70     ISSN:  1535-2900     ISO Abbreviation:  Am J Health Syst Pharm     Publication Date:  2013 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-05-03     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9503023     Medline TA:  Am J Health Syst Pharm     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  S21-31     Citation Subset:  IM    
William E. Dager, Pharm.D., BCPS (AQ-Cardiology), FCSHP, FCCP, FCCM, FASHP, is Pharmacist Specialist, University of California (UC) Davis Medical Center, Sacramento; Clinical Professor of Medicine, UC Davis School of Medicine; Clinical Professor of Pharmacy, UC San Francisco School of Pharmacy; and Clinical Professor of Pharmacy, Touro School of Pharmacy, Vallejo, CA.
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