Document Detail

Determination of maternal body composition in pregnancy and its relevance to perinatal outcomes.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15385859     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Three models and 10 specific methods for determining maternal body composition are discussed and their perinatal relevance reviewed. English language publications (1950 to January 2004) were searched electronically and by hand. Search terms included "body composition," "human," " pregnancy," "obesity," "adiposity," "regional," "2-, 3-, 4-component," "truncal," "peripheral," "central," "visceral" along with specific techniques and outcomes listed subsequently. Three models of body composition are described: 2-component being fat and fat-free mass; 3-component being fat, water, and protein; and 4-component being fat, water, protein, and osseous mineral. Ten techniques of body composition assessment are described: 1) anthropometric techniques including skinfold thicknesses and waist-hip ratio; 2) total body water (isotopically labeled); 3) hydrodensitometry (underwater weighing); 4) air-displacement plethysmography; 5) bio-impedance analysis (BIA); 6) total body potassium (TBK); 7) dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA); 8) computed tomography (CT); 9) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); and 10) ultrasound (USS). Most methods estimate total adiposity. Regional fat distribution-central (truncal) compared with peripheral (limb) or visceral compared with subcutaneous-is important because of regional variation in adipocyte metabolism. Skinfolds, DEXA, CT, MRI, or USS can distinguish central from peripheral fat. CT, MRI, or USS can further subdivide central fat into visceral and subcutaneous. Perinatal outcomes examined in relation to body composition include pregnancy duration, birth weight, congenital anomalies, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, and the fetal origins of adult disease. A few studies suggest that central compared with peripheral fat correlates better with birth weight, gestational carbohydrate intolerance, and hypertension. Means of accurately assessing maternal body composition remain cumbersome and impractical, but may more accurately predict perinatal outcomes than traditional assessments such as maternal weight.
Elizabeth A McCarthy; Boyd J G Strauss; Susan P Walker; Michael Permezel
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Obstetrical & gynecological survey     Volume:  59     ISSN:  0029-7828     ISO Abbreviation:  Obstet Gynecol Surv     Publication Date:  2004 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-09-23     Completed Date:  2004-12-30     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0401007     Medline TA:  Obstet Gynecol Surv     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  731-42; quiz 745-6     Citation Subset:  IM    
University of Melbourne, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mercy Hospital for Women, Australia.
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MeSH Terms
Absorptiometry, Photon
Body Composition*
Body Mass Index
Electric Impedance
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Models, Biological
Pregnancy Outcome*
Sensitivity and Specificity
Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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