Document Detail

Determination of early pregnancy and embryonic growth in goats by transrectal ultrasound scanning.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10732019     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Ultrasonography has been shown to be a useful tool for pregnancy diagnosis and the study of embryonic growth in mammals. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the use of real-time B-mode ultrasonography for early pregnancy diagnosis in goats, 2) to define criteria for accurate diagnosis of pregnancy, and 3) to monitor the embryonic growth ultrasonically until Day 40 after mating. Estrus was synchronized in 16 cyclic Anglo-Nubian goats with a single injection of cloprostenol (125 micrograms, i.m.). Estrous females were randomly assigned into 2 groups: 1) goats mated by a vasectomized male (n = 5; MV group), and 2) goats mated by an intact male of proven fertility (n = 11; MF group). Transrectal ultrasonographic examinations with a 5 MHz linear array transducer were performed from Days 13 to 40 post mating. The evaluated parameters included the appearance of nonechogenic areas in the uterus, presence of embryo(s), crown-rump length of embryo and embryonic heart rate (beats/min). On Day 18, the mean (+/- SEM) diameter of nonechogenic areas was 1.5 +/- 0.3 mm in the MV group and 4.0 +/- 0.5 mm in the MF group (P < 0.01). In 36% of the pregnant does these areas were less than 3 mm. The mean (+/- SEM) day of the first detection by means of heartbeats of at least 1 embryo was 20.7 +/- 0.5 d (range, Days 19 to 23). From Days 19 to 38 of pregnancy, crown-rump length was best represented by a linear regression (Y = -2.23 + 0.13X; r2 = 0.94; P < 0.05). Crown-rump length on the day of the first detection of an embryo was 5.3 +/- 0.3 mm, reaching 34.2 +/- 0.6 mm on Day 40. Mean (+/- SEM) heartbeat rate was 168.3 +/- 2.8 beats/min on Day 21, decreasing to 158.3 +/- 2.0 beats/min on Day 40. Detection of the caprine embryo by ultrasonography and confirmation of its viability by heartbeats was shown to be a reliable method for early pregnancy diagnosis in Anglo-Nubian goats. Ultrasonic measurement of crown-rump length was useful in predicting the age of the embryo.
M F Martínez; P Bosch; R A Bosch
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Theriogenology     Volume:  49     ISSN:  0093-691X     ISO Abbreviation:  Theriogenology     Publication Date:  1998 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2000-04-11     Completed Date:  2000-04-11     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0421510     Medline TA:  Theriogenology     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1555-65     Citation Subset:  IM    
Departamento de Reproducción Animal, Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina.
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MeSH Terms
Cloprostenol / therapeutic use
Crown-Rump Length
Embryonic and Fetal Development / physiology*
Goats / embryology,  physiology*
Heart Rate
Ovary / physiology
Pregnancy, Animal / physiology*
Random Allocation
Regression Analysis
Ultrasonography, Prenatal / veterinary*
Uterus / ultrasonography
Reg. No./Substance:

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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