Document Detail

Determinants of ventilatory efficiency in heart failure: the role of right ventricular performance and pulmonary vascular tone.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19808296     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Ventilatory efficiency, right ventricular (RV) function, and secondary pulmonary hypertension are each prognostic indicators in patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction, but the relationships among these variables have not been comprehensively investigated. In this study, we hypothesized that inefficient ventilation during exercise, as defined by an abnormally steep relationship between ventilation and carbon dioxide output (Ve/Vco(2) slope), may be a marker of secondary pulmonary hypertension and RV dysfunction in heart failure.
METHODS AND RESULTS: A cohort of patients with systolic heart failure (mean+/-SD age, 58+/-13 years; left ventricular ejection fraction, 0.27+/-0.05; peak oxygen uptake, 11.2+/-3.2 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) underwent incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing with simultaneous hemodynamic monitoring and first-pass radionuclide ventriculography before and after 12 weeks of treatment with sildenafil, a selective pulmonary vasodilator, or placebo. Ve/Vco(2) slope was positively related to rest and exercise pulmonary vascular resistance (R=0.39 and R=0.60, respectively) and rest pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (R=0.49, P<0.005 for all) and weakly indirectly related to peak exercise RV ejection fraction (R=-0.29, P=0.03). Over the 12-week study period, Ve/Vco(2) slope fell 8+/-3% (P=0.02) with sildenafil and was unchanged with placebo. Changes in Ve/Vco(2) slope correlated with changes in exercise pulmonary vascular resistance (R=0.69, P<0.001) and rest and exercise RV ejection fraction (R=-0.58 and -0.40, respectively, both P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with systolic heart failure and secondary pulmonary hypertension, ventilatory efficiency is closely related to RV function and pulmonary vascular tone during exercise.
Gregory D Lewis; Ravi V Shah; Paul P Pappagianopolas; David M Systrom; Marc J Semigran
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Circulation. Heart failure     Volume:  1     ISSN:  1941-3297     ISO Abbreviation:  Circ Heart Fail     Publication Date:  2008 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-10-07     Completed Date:  2009-11-10     Revised Date:  2011-06-07    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101479941     Medline TA:  Circ Heart Fail     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  227-33     Citation Subset:  IM    
Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, and Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Carbon Dioxide
Cohort Studies
Double-Blind Method
Exercise Test
Heart Failure / complications,  diagnosis,  physiopathology*
Hypertension, Pulmonary / diagnosis,  drug therapy,  etiology,  physiopathology*
Middle Aged
Muscle Tonus*
Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / physiopathology*
Piperazines / therapeutic use
Pulmonary Circulation*
Purines / therapeutic use
Sulfones / therapeutic use
Vascular Resistance
Vasodilator Agents / therapeutic use
Ventricular Function, Right*
Ventriculography, First-Pass
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Piperazines; 0/Purines; 0/Sulfones; 0/Vasodilator Agents; 124-38-9/Carbon Dioxide; 139755-83-2/sildenafil

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