Document Detail

Detection and prevention of chronic kidney disease in Indonesia: initial community screening.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19796026     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
AIM: This survey evaluated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD if estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)) and its risk factors amongst subjects from urban and semi-urban areas. METHODS: History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases of subjects and their families was recorded. Blood pressure was determined as the mean of three readings in the sitting position and hypertension classified according to the Joint National Committee VII. Urinalysis was assessed using Combi 10R dipstick test. Random blood glucose and serum creatinine were measured in subjects with either hypertension, proteinuria, glycosuria and/or a history of diabetes. eGFR was calculated according Cockcroft-Gault (CG) adjusted by body surface area (BSA), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Chinese MDRD equations. RESULTS: Of 9412 subjects recruited, 64.1% were female. Persistent proteinuria was found in almost 3%. Systolic and diastolic hypertension was found in 10%, isolated systolic hypertension in 4.8% and isolated diastolic hypertension in 4.6%. CKD was found in 12.5% (CG), 8.6% (MDRD) or 7.5% (Chinese MDRD) of subjects with either hypertension, proteinuria and/or diabetes. Proteinuria, systolic blood pressure and a history of diabetes mellitus were independent predictors of impaired eGFR. Obesity and smoking history were found in 32.5% and 19.8%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The present study showed a high prevalence of CKD in representative urban and semi-urban areas and argues for screening and treatment of all Indonesians, particularly those at an increased risk of CKD.
Wiguno Prodjosudjadi; Suhardjono; Ketut Suwitra; Pranawa; I Gde Raka Widiana; Jodi Sidharta Loekman; Ginova Nainggolan; Heru Prasanto; Yanri Wijayanti; Dharmeizar; Mochammad Sja'bani; M Yusuf Nasution; Widodo Basuki; Aditiawardana; David C H Harris; David J Pugsley;
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.)     Volume:  14     ISSN:  1440-1797     ISO Abbreviation:  Nephrology (Carlton)     Publication Date:  2009 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-10-02     Completed Date:  2009-12-09     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9615568     Medline TA:  Nephrology (Carlton)     Country:  Australia    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  669-74     Citation Subset:  IM    
Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
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MeSH Terms
Body Mass Index
Chronic Disease
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Hypertension / epidemiology
Indonesia / epidemiology
Kidney Diseases / diagnosis*,  epidemiology,  prevention & control
Middle Aged
Proteinuria / epidemiology

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